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Term Definition/Description Source
C4I for the Warrior Vision The realization of a global command, control, communications, computer, and intelligence system that directly links and supports the warriors-combat troops of all services-who engage in military operations in a rapidly changing world, providing them with accurate and complete pictures of their battlespace; timely and detailed mission objectives; and the clearest view of their targets. [C4IFTW, J6] DISA CFS
C4I Integration Support Activity (CISA) CISA is a DOD Support Activity operating under the direction, authority, and control of the ASD(C3I) and his Deputy. CISA provides technical and analytical support, as directed, for Defense C4I programs and cross-programs evaluation; resource management; integration of C4I architectures and programs; technology development programs; development and validation of C4I requirements; and assessments of comparative worth of C4I systems. CISA Is headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, VA. CISA Web Site
C4ISR Architecture A representation, as of a current or future point in time, of the command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance or reconnaissance (C4ISR) domain in terms of its component parts, what those parts do, how those parts relate to each other, and the rules and constraints under which the parts function. C4ISR AF
C4ISR Architecture Framework The rules, guidance, and product descriptions for developing and presenting architecture descriptions that ensure a common denominator for understanding, comparing, and integrating architectures [within the C4ISR community]. C4ISR AF
cadastral map A map showing the boundaries of subdivisions of land, usually with the bearings and lengths thereof and the areas of individual tracts, for purposes of describing and recording ownership. Also called property map. See also plat. HDBK-850
cadastral survey A survey relating to land boundaries and subdivisions, made to create units suitable for transfer or to define the limitations of title. The term cadastral survey is now used to designate the surveys of the public lands of the United States, including retracement surveys for the identification and resurveys for the restoration of property lines; the term can also be applied properly to corresponding surveys outside the public lands, although such surveys are usually termed land surveys through preference. HDBK-850
cadastral survey The means by which private and public land is defined, divided, traced, and recorded. The term derives from the French cadastre, a register of the survey of lands and is, in effect, the public record of the extent, value, and ownership of land for purposes of taxation. Cartesian Coordinates are a system of positional reference in which location is measured along two or three orthogonal (perpendicular) axes. Every location can be defined uniquely by its X, Y, and Z coordinates. Locations in the coordinate system can be established using any unit of measurement such as meters, feet, or miles. OpenGIS Guide
cairn An artificial mound of rocks, stones, or masonry usually conical or pyramidal, whose purpose is to designate or to aid in identifying a point of surveying or of cadastral importance. HDBK-850
calculated altitude See computed altitude. HDBK-850
calendar A temporal reference system based on an interval scale, in which position is expressed as a combination of calendar date and time of day. NOTE - Date and time may each be expressed as a combination of elements based on different units of measurement (e.g., date as year, month, and day of the month; time of day as hour, minute, and second). ISO/TC 211
calibrated focal length 1. (JCS) An adjusted value of the equivalent focal length, so computed as to equalize the positive and negative values of distortion over the entire field used in a camera. See also focal length. 2. The distance along the lens axis from the interior perspective center to the image plane. HDBK-850
calibration The act or process of determining certain specific measurements in a camera or other instrument or device by comparison with a standard, for use in correcting or compensating for errors or for purposes of record. See also camera calibration; field calibration; shop calibration. HDBK-850
calibration card A card having a list of calibration corrections or calibrated values. HDBK-850
calibration constants The results obtained by calibration, which give the calibrated focal length of the lens-camera unit and the relationship of the principal point to the fiducial marks of a camera and give significant calibration corrections for lens distortions. HDBK-850
calibration correction The value to be added to or subtracted from the reading of an instrument to obtain the correct reading. HDBK-850
calibration course See field comparator. HDBK-850
calibration error See instrument error. HDBK-850
calibration plate A glass negative exposed with its emulsion side corresponding to the position of the emulsion side of the film in the camera at the time of exposure. This plate provides a record of the distance between the fiducial marks of the camera. Also called flash plate; master glass negative. HDBK-850
calibration table A list of calibration corrections or calibrated values. HDBK-850
calibration templet (photogrammetry) A template of glass, plastic, or metal made in accordance with the calibration constants to show the relationship of the principal point of a camera to the fiducial marks; used for the rapid and accurate marking of principal points on a series of photographs. Also, for a multiple-lens camera, a template prepared from the calibration data and used in assembling the individual photographs into one composite photograph. HDBK-850
call A reference to, or statement of, an object course, distance, or other matter of description in a survey or grant, requiring or calling for a corresponding object, or other matter of description, on the land. HDBK-850
Callippic cycle A period of four Metonic cycles equal to 76 Julian years, or 27,759 days. HDBK-850
camera A lightproof chamber or box in which the image of an exterior object is projected upon a sensitized plate or film through an opening usually equipped with a lens or lenses, shutter, and variable aperture. See also aerial camera; BC-4 camera; ballistic camera; continuous strip camera; convergent camera; copy camera; direct scanning camera; fan cameras; frame camera; geodetic stellar camera; horizon camera; mapping camera; metric camera; multiple-camera assembly; multiple-lens camera; PC-1000 camera; panoramic camera; photogrammetric camera; positioning camera; precision camera; rectifier; rotating prism camera; split cameras; stellar camera; stereometric camera; terrestrial camera; trimetrogon camera; variable perspective camera system; zenith camera. HDBK-850
camera axis (JCS) An imaginary line through the optical center of the lens perpendicular to the negative photo plane. HDBK-850
camera axis direction (JCS) Direction on the horizontal plane of the optical axis of the camera at the time of exposure. This direction is defined by its azimuth expressed in degrees in relation to true/magnetic north. HDBK-850
camera calibration (JCS) The determination of the calibrated focal length, the location of the principal point with respect to the fiducial marks, and the lens distortion effective in the focal plane of the camera and referred to the particular calibrated focal length. [In a multiple-lens camera, the calibration also includes the determination of the angles between the component perspective units. The setting of the fiducial marks and the positioning of the lens are ordinarily considered as adjustments, although they are sometimes performed during the calibration process. Unless a camera is specifically referred to, distortion and other optical characteristics of a lens are determined in a focal plane located at the equivalent focal length and the process is termed lens calibration.] HDBK-850
camera lucida A monocular instrument using a half-silvered mirror, or the optical equivalent, to permit superimposition of a vertical image of an object upon a plane. Also called camera obscura. See also sketchmaster. HDBK-850
camera magazine (JCS) A removable part of a camera in which the unexposed and exposed portions of film are contained. HDBK-850
camera obscura See camera lucida. HDBK-850
camera station See air base; air station. HDBK-850
camera transit See phototheodolite. HDBK-850
camera window (JCS) A window in the camera compartment through which photographs are taken . HDBK-850
Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) The CCRS is located within Geomatics Canada, which together with the Geological Survey of Canada and the Polar Continental Shelf Project makes up the Earth Sciences Sector of Natural Resources Canada. Established in 1971, CCRS has the mandate to improve remote sensing technology, facilitate the acquisition and dissemination of remote sensing data, and to work with and develop the Canadian industry involved in remote sensing. It has general responsibility for remote sensing research and development within the Government of Canada and is responsible for the ground segment and applications development for the recently launched Radar Satellite (RADARSAT). The major current focus of the Centre is in the area of radar technology and applications directed at RADARSAT and other radar satellites. The headquarters of the CCRS is located in Ottawa, Ontario. CCRS Web Site
Canadian grid See perspective grid. HDBK-850
candela A unit of luminous intensity. HDBK-850
cantilever extension Phototriangulation from a controlled area to an area of no control. Also, the connection by relative orientation and scaling of a series of photographs in a strip to obtain strip coordinates. Also called extension. HDBK-850
capability test A test performed to determine the capabilities of an IUT, designed to determine whether an implementation conforms to a particular characteristic of an application protocol as described in the test purpose. ISO/TC 211
Cape Canaveral datum This special datum is defined with its origin at station Central on the John F. Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, Florida, with azimuth to Central SE Base. The geodetic coordinates of these two stations were identical to those on North American datum of 1927. Datum differences for other points may be determined by subtracting North American datum of 1927 values from the Cape Canaveral datum values as established by the USC&GS transcontinental traverse of the United States. See also North American Datum of 1927. HDBK-850
capsule A configuration of engineering objects forming a single unit for the purpose of encapsulation of processing and storage. Virtual machines and processes are examples of a capsule. RM-ODP
cardan link A universal joint. An optical cardan link is a device for universal scanning about a point. HDBK-850
cardinal point effect (JCS) The increased intensity of a line or group of returns on the radarscope occurring when the radar beam is perpendicular to the rectangular surface of a line or group of similarly aligned features in the ground pattern. HDBK-850
cardinal points 1. The directions: north, south, east, west. 2. (optics) Those points of a lens used as reference for determining object and image distances. They include principal planes and points, nodal points, and focal points. HDBK-850
cardinality The number of objects associated by an association type CEN/TC 287
Carpentier inversor One of the inversors which corrects for the Scheimpflug condition in a rectifier if the negative, lens, or easel planes are tilted and not parallel. HDBK-850
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) IEEE 802.3 media access control LAN standard. Sometimes referred to as Ethernet. This LAN interface can be designed to interface with any type of cable and is typically implemented as a bus and/or star topology. IEEE 802.3 supports data rates of 10 megabits per second. [DISA/DO3 (CIO)] DISA CFS
carrying contour A single contour line representing two or more contours, used to show vertical or near-vertical topographic features, such as steep slopes and cliffs. HDBK-850
Cartesian Coordinate System A coordinate system in which locations of points in space are expressed by reference to three mutually perpendicular planes, called coordinate planes. The three planes intersect in three straight lines called coordinate axes. [Also the values representing the location of a point in a plane in relation to two perpendicular intersecting straight lines, called axes. The point is located by measuring its distance from each axis along a parallel to the other axis.] HDBK-850
cartesian coordinates Numbers given to locate a point in relation to mutually-perpendicular axes. Although a generic term that includes plane coordinates and local cartesian coordinates the term normally means (X,Y,Z) in a geocentric cartesian datum when used in a 3-dimensional context without the word "local". CEN/TC 287
cartesian product of domains The set of composite elements consisting of an element from each of the sets. NOTE - Such products are often written using a multiplicative notation as AÄ B (read "A cross B") or Ai (read "product of the A sub-i's). NOTE - Elements are written with angled brackets as AÄ B = {<a,b>|aA,bB} (read "A cross B is equal to the set of all pairs, a and b, where a is in A and b is in B"). The product of domains is a domain. We can also write AÄ B as <A,B>. Extending the notation to multiple items, we can get <A, B, C, ... , Z> for any number of domains. ISO/TC 211
cartographic annotation The delineation of additional data, new features, or deletion of destroyed or dismantled features on a mosaic to portray current details. Cartographic annotations may include elevation values for airfields, cities, and large bodies of water; new construction and destroyed or dismantled roads, railroads, bridges, dams, target installations, and cultural features of landmark significance. HDBK-850
Cartographic Automatic Mapping (CAM) A mainframe computer mapping program available from the Central Intelligence Agency. It works with World Data Bank (WDB II) coordinate files to create map projections and generate plots. HDBK-850
cartographic compilation See compilation, definition 1. HDBK-850
cartographic data base (CDB) 1. A data base of map graphics captured from a map or used to produce a map. A CDB incorporates a hierarchy for feature displacement. 2. An internal NIMA function which consists of actual digital data products, an automated directory defining the data availability, data base management software, computer hardware, and CDB operations staff and management. HDBK-850
cartographic feature The natural or cultural objects shown on a map or chart. See also topography, definition 1. HDBK-850
cartographic film Film with a dimensionally stable base, used for map negatives and/or positives. Usually referred to by trade name. HDBK-850
cartographic license The freedom to adjust, add, or omit map features within allowable limits to attain the best cartographic expression. License must not be construed as permitting the cartographer to deviate from specifications. HDBK-850
cartographic photography See mapping photography. HDBK-850
cartographic primitive A type of primitive that does not participate in topology. Text is the only cartographic primitive. See also geometric primitive. HDBK-850
cartographic scanner A device for strip-by-strip scanning of two-dimensional copy and for digital registration of the light/dark (black/white) parts as rectangular coordinates. HDBK-850
cartography The art and science of expressing graphically, by maps and charts, the known physical and political/administrative features of the Earth, or of another celestial body. HDBK-850
cartometric scaling The accurate measurement of geographic or grid coordinates on a map or chart by means of a scale. This method may be used for plotting the positions of points, or determining the location of points. HDBK-850
carving The development of the model surface by carving away the steps of the plaster step cast in the production of relief models. HDBK-850
Cassini map projection A conventional map projection constructed by computing the lengths of arcs along a selected geographic meridian and along a great circle perpendicular to that meridian, and plotting these as rectangular coordinates on a plane. HDBK-850
Cassini-Soldner map projection Similar to a polyconic map projection except that it uses but one central meridian for a whole series. Best adapted for north-south belts and large-scale maps of small areas. HDBK-850
casting The process of reproducing relief models in plaster or epoxy from the terrain base of the model, or after the surface of the model has been developed. Models are first cast negative, from which any number of positive castings may be made. HDBK-850
casual error See random error. HDBK-850
catadioptric system (optics) An optical system containing both refractive and reflective elements. HDBK-850
catenary correction (taping) See sag correction. HDBK-850
cathode ray tube (CRT) Electronic vacuum tube that focuses electrons energizing phosphors on a screen, creating a visible display. The typical computer monitor uses this type of display technology. [HCI Style Guide] DISA CFS
catoptric system (optics) An optical system in which all elements are reflective (mirrors). HDBK-850
cautionary note Information calling special attention to some fact, usually a danger area, shown on a map or chart. HDBK-850
C-constant See level constant. HDBK-850
celestial coordinates Any set of coordinates used to define a point on the celestial sphere. HDBK-850
celestial equator The great circle on the celestial sphere whose plane is perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the Earth. Also called equinoctial. HDBK-850
celestial equator system of coordinates A set of celestial coordinates based on the celestial equator as the primary great circle; usually declination and hour angle or sidereal hour angle. Also called equator system; equatorial system; equinoctial system of coordinates. HDBK-850
celestial fix A position established by means of observation on one or more celestial bodies. HDBK-850
celestial geodesy The branch of geodesy which utilizes observations of near celestial bodies, including Earth satellites, to determine the size and shape of the Earth. HDBK-850
celestial horizon That circle of the celestial sphere formed by the intersection of the celestial sphere and a plane through the center of the Earth and perpendicular to the zenith nadir line. Also called rational horizon. HDBK-850
celestial latitude Angular distance north or south of the ecliptic; the arc of a circle of latitude between the ecliptic and a point on the celestial sphere, measured northward or southward from the ecliptic through 90, and labeled "N" or "S" to indicate the direction of measurement. Also called ecliptic latitude. HDBK-850
celestial line of position A line of position determined by means of the observation of a celestial body. HDBK-850
celestial longitude Angular distance east of the vernal equinox, along the ecliptic; the arc of the ecliptic or the angle at the ecliptic pole between the circle of latitude of the vernal equinox and the circle of latitude of a point on the celestial sphere, measured eastward from the circle of latitude of the vernal equinox, through 360. Also called ecliptic longitude. HDBK-850
celestial mechanics The study of the theory of the motions of celestial bodies under the influence of gravitational fields. HDBK-850
celestial meridian An hour circle of the celestial sphere, through the celestial poles and the zenith. The two intersections of the celestial meridian with the horizon are known as the north and south points. HDBK-850
celestial observation 1. Observation of celestial phenomena. 2. (navigation) The measurement of the altitude or the azimuth, or both, of a celestial body. Also the data obtained by such measurement. HDBK-850
celestial parallel See parallel of declination. HDBK-850
celestial pole Either of the two points of intersection of the celestial sphere and the extended axis of the Earth. HDBK-850
celestial refraction See astronomic refraction. HDBK-850
celestial sphere (JCS) An imaginary sphere of infinite radius concentric with the Earth, on which all celestial bodies except the Earth are imagined to be projected. [For observations on bodies within the limits of the solar system, the assumed center is the center of the Earth. For bodies where the parallax is negligible, the assumed center may be the point of observation.] HDBK-850
celestial triangle A spherical triangle on the celestial sphere, especially the navigational triangle. HDBK-850
cell Variable size rectangular geographic area, often designated by latitude/longitude boundaries. [e.g., NIMA produces standard elevation (DTED) and feature (DFAD) data in one degree by one degree cells] HDBK-850
center line data (CLD) Data which describes points, lines and areas as one or several coordinate points selected at the center of the phenomena being described. Attributes used with centerline data describe the feature in real world terms and not the display of graphic output. Symbolized graphic data, on the other hand, contains attribution for the display of graphic output. HDBK-850
center of gravity The point in any body at which the force of gravity may be considered to be concentrated. HDBK-850
center of instrument The point on the vertical axis of rotation of an instrument at the same elevation as the axis of collimation when that axis is in a horizontal position. In a transit or theodolite, it is close to or at the intersection of the horizontal and vertical axes of the instrument. HDBK-850
center of mass The point at which all the given mass of a body or bodies may be regarded as being concentrated as far as motion is concerned. HDBK-850
center of oscillation (pendulum) The position in a compound pendulum of the particle which corresponds to the heavy particle of an equivalent simple pendulum. The centers of suspension and oscillation are interchangeable. If the center of oscillation is made the center of suspension, the former center of suspension becomes the new center of oscillation. This principle is the basis of design of compound reversible pendulums. HDBK-850
center of projection See perspective center. HDBK-850
center of radiation See radial center. HDBK-850
center of suspension (pendulum) The fixed point about which a pendulum oscillates. See also center of oscillation. HDBK-850
center point See radial center. HDBK-850
centerline 1. (USPLS) The line connecting opposite corresponding quarter corners or opposite subdivision-of-section corners or their theoretical positions. 2. A line extending from the true center point of overlapping aerial photos through each of the transposed center points. 3. (engineering survey) The continuous center of a highway or railroad, with stationing indicating starting point, culverts, points of curvature, etc. HDBK-850
central force A force which for purposes of computation can be considered to be concentrated at one central point with its intensity at any other point being a function of the distance from the central point. Gravitation is considered as a central force in celestial mechanics. HDBK-850
central force field The spatial distribution of the influence of a central force. HDBK-850
central force orbit The theoretical orbit achieved by a particle of negligible mass moving in the vicinity of a point mass with no other forces acting; an unperturbed orbit. HDBK-850
Central MASINT Office A DIA unit that provides functional management for MASINT. Headquartered at Bolling AFB, Washington DC. USIS 95
central meridian The longitudinal line of symmetry of a map projection, and generally a base line for referencing the projection to the associated grid coordinate system. As such, grid north and true north are coincident along the central meridian, but at any other point of the projection, grid north and true north diverge as a function of geodetic latitude and longitudinal distance from the central meridian due to convergence of the meridians. Most map projections portray meridian convergence, but one notable exception is the Mercator Projection. HDBK-850
central point figure A triangulation figure consisting of a polygon with an interior station, formed by a series of adjoining triangles with a common vertex at the interior station. HDBK-850
Central Security Service (CSS) See National Security Agency / Central Security Service (NSA/CSS). NSA Web Site
Centre National D'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) The CNES is a French quasi-governmental agency, empowered to officially represent the government in foreign affairs related to space development. France is a principal member of the European Space Agency (ESA), and has maintained an official policy of priority to programs in such areas as geophysical observation, etc. The CNES is actively involved in commercial space development, owning over 30% of the stock of (i) the Arianespace Inc. which manufactures and launches the Ariane rocket and (ii) the Spot Image Corporation which operates geo-observation satellites and markets the data obtained from these. The CNES is headquartered in Toulouse, Cedex, France. NASDA SE
centrifugal force The force with which a body moving under constraint along a curved path reacts to the constraint, acting in a direction opposite from the center of curvature of the path. For a body constrained to Earth, centrifugal force acting on the body due to Earth's rotation is perpendicular to and away from Earth's rotational axis. The vector sum of this centrifugal force and the gravitational force due to the total mass of the body and Earth is defined as the gravity force acting on the body. See also centripetal force. HDBK-850
centripetal force The force directed towards the center of curvature, which constrains a body to move in a curved path. See also centrifugal force. HDBK-850
centroid (digital mapping) A point interior to a polygon whose coordinates are the average of the corresponding coordinates for all nodal points which define the polygon. This point may be outside or inside the polygon and can be some point other than the geographic center of the polygon. HDBK-850
centroid the term given to the center of an area, region, or polygon. In the case of irregularly shaped polygons, the centroid is derived mathematically and is weighted to approximate a sort of "center of gravity." Centroids are important in GIS because these discrete X-Y locations are often used to index or reference the polygon within which they are located. Sometimes attribute information is "attached," "hung," or "hooked" to the centroid location. OpenGIS Guide
certificate of conformance A document issued under the rules of a certification system indicating that adequate confidence is provided that an IUT is in conformity with a specific standard or technical specification as determined through use of a specified test method. ISO/TC 211
certification The formal technical evaluation of security features and other safeguards of an Automated Information System. Certification, which supports the accreditation process, establishes the extent to which a particular AIS design and implementation meet a set of specified security requirements. [DISA/D2] DII MP
certification Confirmation by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (Director for C4 Systems (J6)) based on assessments by the DISA, that appropriate testing has been accomplished and that the applicable standards and requirements for compatibility and interoperability have been met. DODI 4630.8
certification body An impartial body possessing the necessary competence and reliability to operate a certification system, and in which the interests of all parties concerned with the function of the system are represented. NOTE - The certification body may decentralise its activities and rights to certify conformity. ISO/TC 211
certify Certify that the standards selected in architectures and planning documents are consistent with profiles and suites of standards specified in the domains. DISA CFS
C-factor An empirical value which expresses the vertical measuring capability of a given stereoscopic system; generally defined as the ratio of the flight height to the smallest contour interval accurately plottable. The C-factor is not a fixed constant, but varies over a considerable range, according to the elements and conditions of the photogrammetric system. In planning for aerial photography, the C-factor is used to determine the flight height required for a specified contour interval, camera, and instrument system. Also called altitude contour ratio. HDBK-850
chain A device used by surveyors for measuring distance, or the length of this device as a unit of distance. The usual chain is 66 feet long, and consists of 100 links, each 7.92 inches long. See also engineer's chain; Gunter's chain. HDBK-850
chain gage See tape gage. HDBK-850
chain node An arc-node topological model that stores the entity descriptions and spatial extents in separate records, and links them with record pointers. The basic entity is a chain or arc, a series of coordinates that start and end at a node. A node is a beginning, an end, an intersection, or a point represented by a coordinate pair. See also arc, edge, link and node. HDBK-850
chaining See taping. HDBK-850
chaining pin See pin. HDBK-850
chain-node data structure A vector data structure in which the entity description and the spatial extent of each feature in a vector data set are stored in separate records, linked by record pointers. In addition, all intersections between features, as well as point features, are captured and stored as nodes. See also Level 1 topology. HDBK-850
Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff The principal military advisor to the President and the National Security Council. Reports to the Secretary of Defense. USIS 95
Challenge Athena A CNO project that explores the delivery of high volume networked data to multiple afloat warfighters. Challenge Athena I demonstrated the ability to receive wideband imagery on the USS George Washington. Challenge Athena II established a full duplex T-1 link on the USS George Washington for a six month deployment in multiple theaters. Challenge Athena III will demonstrate "bandwidth on demand: by networking up to three ships USIS 95
challenger See interrogator responsor. HDBK-850
chambered spirit level A level tube with a partition near one end which cuts off a small air reservoir so arranged that the length of the bubble can be regulated. HDBK-850
change detection An image enhancement technique which compares two images of the same area from different time periods. Identical picture elements are eliminated, leaving signatures which have undergone change. HDBK-850
channel A configuration of stubs, binders, protocol objects, and interceptors providing a binding (connection) between a set of interfaces to engineering objects, though which interactions can occur. Bindings that require channels are referred to as distributed bindings in the engineering language. Bindings between that do not require channels (i.e. between objects in the same cluster) are referred to as local bindings. RM-ODP
character The distinctive trait, quality, property, or behavior of man-made or natural features as portrayed by a cartographer. The more character applied to detail, the more closely it will resemble these features as they appear on the surface of the Earth. See also generalization. HDBK-850
character-based interface A non-bit mapped user interface in which the primary form of interaction between the user and system is through text. JTA 2.0
characteristic curve (photography) A curve showing the relationship between exposure and resulting density in a photographic image, usually plotted as the density (D) against the logarithm of the exposure (log E) in candle-meter-seconds. Also called D log E curve; density exposure curve; H and D curve; sensitometric curve; time gamma curve. See also contrast; density, definition 1. HDBK-850
characterization The process of identifying system CI&I attributes or characteristics as a complement to a pass/fail assessment of system CI&I requirements that provides early feedback on meeting CI&I requirements. DODI 4630.8
charge coupled device A detector array used for image data acquisition. A CCD is composed of microelectronics chips (elements) that are solid state sensors that detect light. When light strikes a CCD chip, electronic charges are produced, and are converted to a digital value in an analog-to-digital process. These digital values are recorded. USIS 95
chart 1. A special-purpose map, generally designed for navigation or other particular purposes, in which essential map information is combined with various other data critical to the intended use. 2. To prepare a chart, or engage in a charting operation. See also aeronautical chart; aeronautical pilotage chart; aeronautical planning chart; Air Target Chart; anchorage chart; approach chart; azimuthal chart; azimuthal equidistant chart; Baldwin solar chart; bathymetric chart; chartlet; coastal chart; combat chart; conformal chart; conic chart; conic chart with two standard parallels; Consol chart; cotidal chart; current chart; Decca chart; enroute chart; equatorial chart; firing chart; general chart; Global Navigation Chart; gnomonic chart; great-circle chart; harbor chart; historical chart; hydrographic chart; hypsographic map (or chart); ice chart; index chart; instrument approach chart; isobaric chart; isoclinic chart; isogonic chart; isogriv chart; isomagnetic chart; isoporic chart; Jet Navigation Chart; Lambert conformal chart; local chart; long-range navigation chart; loran chart; lunar chart; lunar earthside chart; lunar farside chart; magnetic chart; Marsden chart; mean chart; Mercator chart; meteorological chart; mileage chart; miscellaneous chart; modified Lambert conformal chart; new chart; oblique chart; oblique Mercator chart; obsolete chart; Operational Navigation Chart; orthographic chart; orthomorphic chart; perspective chart; pilot chart; pilotage chart; planning chart; plotting chart; polar chart; polyconic chart; radar chart; rectangular chart; route chart; sailing chart; search-and-rescue chart; secant conic chart; sectional chart; sextant chart; simple conic chart; star chart; stereographic chart; Tactical Pilotage Chart; tidal current chart; time zone chart; track chart; transverse chart; transverse Mercator chart; virtual PPI reflectoscope chart; visibility chart; weather map; World Aeronautical Chart. HDBK-850
chart base (JCS) A chart used as a primary source for compilation or as a framework on which new detail is printed. Also called topographic base. See also base map. HDBK-850
chart comparison unit A device permitting simultaneous viewing of navigational instrument presentation, such as a radarscope and a navigational chart, so that one appears superimposed upon the other. Also called autoradar plot when used with radar. HDBK-850
chart datum See hydrographic datum. HDBK-850
Chart Update Manual (CHUM) A NIMA published manual which provides aeronautical chart users with current information on a monthly basis concerning charts and hazards to flight safety for those charts. Future CHUMs may be available electronically (ECHUM). HDBK-850
charted depth The vertical distance from the tidal datum to the bottom surface. HDBK-850
charting photography See mapping photography. HDBK-850
chartlet A small chart, such as those annexed to Notices to Mariners. HDBK-850
check point 1. (JCS) A predetermined point on the Earth's surface used as a means of controlling movement, a registration target for fire adjustment, or a reference for location. 2. (JCS) Geographical location on land or water above which the position of an aircraft in flight may be determined by observation or by electronic means. 3. A point, selected on obliques only, in the vicinity of each tie point and distant point for the purpose of checking the identification of these points. HDBK-850
check profile A profile plotted from a field survey and used to check a profile prepared from a topographic map. The comparison of the two profiles serves as a check on the accuracy of the contours on the topographic map. HDBK-850
checked spot elevation An elevation established in the field by: closed spirit leveling, trigonometric leveling by a closed circuit of barometric leveling, or any other method such that proof of accuracy is obtained. HDBK-850
checking positive A composite printing on glass of the contour and drainage drawings used on the shadow projector for checking the horizontal accuracy of landforms to be developed on relief models. HDBK-850
checkpoint An object template derived from the state and structure of an engineering object, that can be used to instantiate another engineering object , consistent with the state of the original object at the time of checkpointing. RM-ODP
Cheyene Mountain Operations Center (CMOC) CMOC collects data from a worldwide system of satellites, radars, and other sensors and processes that information on sophisticated computer systems to support critical North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) and United States Space Command (USPACECOM) missions. For the NORAD mission, the CMOC provides warning of ballistic missile or air attacks against North America, assists the air sovereignty mission for the United States and Canada, and, if necessary, is the focal point for air defense operations to counter enemy bombers or cruise missiles. In support of the USSPACECOM mission, the CMOC provides a day-to-day picture of precisely what is in space and where it is located. The CMOC also supports space operations, providing critical information such as collision avoidance data for space shuttle flights and troubleshooting satellite interference problems. CMOC is located at Cheyenne Mountain, CO. SPACECOM Web Site
Chief Information Officer (CIO) The Chief Information Officer is the agency designated position responsible for ensuring the effective acquisition and use of information technology (IT), carrying out the agency's information resources management responsibilities, facilitating the development, implementation, maintenance of a sound and integrated information technology architecture for the agency, and promoting the effective design and operation of all major information resources management processes. DODI 4630.8
Chief of Receive Element (CORE) Previously referred to as Chief of Receive Location (CORL). The senior person in charge of the facility. USIS 95
Chief of Receive Location (CORL) See Chief of Receive Element (CORE). USIS 95
Chief of Station Senior leadership position for a ground station. USIS 95
chopping (star or satellite trails) Interrupting the photographic image of a star or satellite trail by a shutter or other device to provide precise timing and orientation data for geodetic observations of aerospace vehicles against a stellar background. HDBK-850
chord 1. (route surveying) Chord used in highway and other surveys to indicate a straight line between two points on a curve, regardless of the distance between them. 2. In surveying and geometry, a straight line joining any two points on an arc, curve, circumference, or surface. HDBK-850
chorographic map Any map representing large regions, countries, or continents on a small scale. Atlas and small-scale wall maps belong in this class. HDBK-850
chromatic aberration See lateral chromatic aberration; longitudinal chromatic aberration. HDBK-850
chromatic colors Colors eliciting hue. HDBK-850
chromaticity A composite of dominant wavelength and purity. HDBK-850
chromaticity coordinates The proportions of standard components required for color match, used as an ordinate and abscissa to represent color in a chromaticity diagram. HDBK-850
chromaticity diagram A plane diagram formed by plotting one of the chromaticity coordinates against another. HDBK-850
chronograph An instrument for producing a graphical record of time as shown by a clock or other device. In use, a chronograph produces a double record: the first is made by the associated clock and forms a continuous time scale with significant marks indicating periodic beats of the timekeeper; the second is made by some external agency, human or mechanical, and records the occurrence of an event or of a series of events. HDBK-850
chronometer A portable timekeeper with compensated balance, capable of showing time with extreme precision and accuracy. See also break-circuit chronometer; hack chronometer. HDBK-850
chronometer correction See clock correction. HDBK-850
chronometer error The amount by which the chronometer differs from the correct time. HDBK-850
chronometer rate See clock rate. HDBK-850
cine theodolite A photographic tracking instrument which records on each film frame the target and the azimuth and elevation angles of the optical axis of the instrument. HDBK-850
circle of confusion (optics) The circular image of a distant point object as formed in a focal plane by a lens. A distant point object (e.g., a star) is imaged in a focal plane of a lens as a circle of finite size, because of such conditions as: (1) the focal plane's not being placed at the point of sharpest focus; (2) the effect of certain aberrations; (3) diffraction at the lens; (4) grain in a photographic emulsion; and/or (5) poor workmanship in the manufacture of the lens. HDBK-850
circle of declination See hour circle. HDBK-850
circle of equal altitude See parallel of altitude. HDBK-850
circle of equal declination See parallel of declination. HDBK-850
circle of latitude 1. A great circle of the celestial sphere through the ecliptic poles, and hence perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic. 2. A meridian along which latitude is measured. HDBK-850
circle of longitude 1. A circle of the celestial sphere, parallel to the ecliptic. 2. A circle on the surface of the Earth, parallel to the plane of the Equator; a parallel, along which longitude is measured. Also called parallel of latitude. HDBK-850
circle of perpetual apparition That circle of the celestial sphere, centered on the polar axis and having a polar distance from the elevated pole approximately equal to the latitude of the observer, within which celestial bodies do not set. See also circle of perpetual occultation. HDBK-850
circle of perpetual occultation That circle of the celestial sphere, centered on the polar axis and having a polar distance from the depressed pole approximately equal to the latitude of the observer, within which celestial bodies do not rise. See also circle of perpetual apparition. HDBK-850
circle of position A small circle on the globe (Earth) at every point of which, at the instant of observation, the observed celestial body (sun, star, or planet) has the same altitude and, therefore, the same zenith distance. HDBK-850
circle of right ascension See hour circle. HDBK-850
circle of the sphere A circle upon the surface of the sphere, specifically of the Earth or of the heavens, called a great circle when its plane passes through the center of the sphere; in all other cases, a small circle. HDBK-850
circle position See position, definition 4. HDBK-850
circuit A multiple link communications pathway that describes a single way to communicate from one communications system node to another. C4ISR AF
circuit An electrical path between two or more points capable of providing two-way communications. [Joint Pub 6-02.1] DISA CFS
circuit (leveling or traverse) A continuous line of levels, a series of lines of levels, or a combination of lines or parts of lines of levels, such that a continuous series of measured differences of elevation extends around the circuit or loop and then back to the starting point. Also applied to a continuous line of transit traverse in a similar manner. HDBK-850
circuit closure (leveling) The amount by which the algebraic sum of the measured differences of elevation around a circuit fails to equal the theoretical closure of zero. See also error of closure, definition 4. HDBK-850
circuit switching The method of providing communications service from a local user or other switching facility, whereby an electrical connection is established rapidly between calling and called parties or stations; normally applies to analog/digital voice (telephone) switching and other modes that ride VF circuits (e.g., facsimile). [Joint Pub 6-02.1] DISA CFS
circular cylindrical coordinates See cylindrical coordinates. HDBK-850
circular error (CE) An accuracy figure representing the stated percentage of probability that any point expressed as a function of two linear components (e.g., horizontal position) will be within the given figure. Commonly used are Circular Error Probable (CEP [50 percent]), and CE (90 percent). A horizontal measurement on the ground, in feet or meters, defining a radius of a circle, within which an object of known coordinates should be found on an image. The CE value should have some measure of probability (P) associated with it. For example, a CE of 100 meters and .9 P, means that 90 percent of the time the object will fall within a circle having a radius of 100 meters. USIS 95
circular error probable (CEP) The 50 percent error interval based on the bivariate normal distribution function. Also called circular probable error. HDBK-850
circular level A spirit level having the inside surface of its upper part ground to spherical shape, the outline of the bubble formed being circular, and the graduations being concentric circles. This form of spirit level is used where a high degree of precision is not required, as in plumbing a level rod or setting an instrument in approximate position. Also called bull's-eye level; universal level. HDBK-850
circular map accuracy standard (CMAS) The United States National Map Accuracy Standards used for domestic mapping. CMAS are specified separately for horizontal and vertical mapped features. See also horizontal accuracy; vertical accuracy. HDBK-850
circular near-certainty error (3.5s) The 99.78 percent error interval based on the bivariate normal distribution function. HDBK-850
circular normal distribution See bivariate normal distribution function. HDBK-850
circular orbit An orbit that has an equal apogee and perigee. USIS 95
circular probable error (CPE) See circular error probable. HDBK-850
circular sigma See circular standard error. HDBK-850
circular standard error (sc) The 68.3 percent error interval based on the bivariate normal distribution function. Also called circular sigma. HDBK-850
circulation map See traffic circulation map. HDBK-850
circumferentor A type of surveyor's compass having slit sights on projecting arms. HDBK-850
circumlunar Around the Moon, generally applied to trajectories. HDBK-850
circummeridian altitudes Exmeridian altitudes observed for determination of latitude when a heavenly body is close to transit. HDBK-850
circumpolar Revolving about the elevated pole without setting. A celestial body is circumpolar when its polar distance is approximately equal to or less than the latitude of the observer. HDBK-850
cislunar 1. This side of the Moon. 2. Of or pertaining to phenomena, projects, or activity in the space between the Earth and the Moon, or between the Earth and the Moon's orbit. HDBK-850
cistern barometer A mercury barometer in which a column of mercury is enclosed in a vertical glass tube, the upper end of which is sealed and exhausted of air, and the lower end placed in a cistern or reservoir of mercury which is exposed to atmospheric pressure. The atmospheric pressure on the free surface of the mercury in the cistern determines the height to which the mercury will rise in the vertical tube. This may be measured, and the pressure reported in terms of that height, as in inches of mercury. HDBK-850
city graphic (CG) Large-scale lithographic map of populated places and environs portraying streets and through-route information. Features include important buildings, airfields, military installations, industrial complexes, embassies, etc. Produced at 1:25,000 and larger scale. See also city products. HDBK-850
city plan See city products. HDBK-850
city products Large-scale maps of populated places and environs, usually portraying street and through-route information, important buildings and other urban features, airfields, port facilities, and relief, drainage, and vegetation when important. Several different types of city products are produced, among which are city graphics, city plans, city route graphics, and military city maps. Specifications for these maps vary according to particular military requirements. HDBK-850
city route graphics (CRG) See city products. HDBK-850
city survey A specialized type of land survey restricted to work completed primarily within the limits of a city. HDBK-850
civil affairs One of the three broad categories of special operational activities conducted by United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM). USIS 95
Civil Applications Committee The Civil Applications Committee is an interagency group, chaired by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) (with members from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Department of Agriculture (USDA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), United States Army Topographic Engineering Center (USATEC), Department of Energy (DoE), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)) tasked to develop procedures for using imagery intelligence (IMINT) by non-intelligence organizations. USIS 95
civil day A solar day beginning at midnight. The civil day may be based on either apparent solar time or mean solar time. See also astronomic day. HDBK-850
Civil Reserve Air Fleet A program in which the DoD uses aircraft owned by a U.S. entity or citizen. The aircraft are allocated by the Department of Transportation to augment the military airlift capability of the DoD. USIS 95
civil support Imagery used for civil purposes such as disaster assessment and relief operations, agricultural assessments, population studies and the like. USIS 95
civil time Solar time in a day (civil day) that begins at midnight. Civil time may be either apparent solar time or mean solar time; it may be counted in two series of 12 hours each, beginning at midnight, marked "am" (ante meridian), and at noon, marked "pm" (post meridian), or in a single series of 24 hours beginning at midnight. HDBK-850
Clairaut's theorem A theorem that, in its original form, relates the value of centrifugal force at the Equator to the value of gravity at the Equator. Importance to physical geodesy is that the flattening of the Earth can be obtained from gravity measurements. HDBK-850
clamping error A systematic error in observations made with a repeating theodolite caused by strains set up by the clamping devices of the instrument. HDBK-850
clandestine Secret or hidden; conducted with secrecy by design. USIS 95
Clarke Orbit A circular orbit at 22,300 miles from the surface of the Earth at which geosynchronous satellites are placed. Orbit first postulated by science-fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke. USIS 95
Clarke spheroid (ellipsoid) of 1866 A reference ellipsoid having the following approximate dimensions: semimajor axis-6,378,206.4 meters and the flattening or ellipticity-1/294.9786982. HDBK-850
Clarke spheroid (ellipsoid) of 1880 A reference ellipsoid having the following approximate dimensions: semimajor axis-6,378,249.145 meters; and the flattening or ellipticity-1/293.465. HDBK-850
class The set of all entities satisfying a type. RM-ODP
classification copy A specialized item of source material used as a guide by the compiler and/or draftsman in preparing a map or chart. Usually consists of detailed information pertaining to roads, railroads, city data, and the like that has been developed from field surveys. Usually furnished in the form of overlays, annotated maps, drawings, photographs, or field sheets. HDBK-850
Classification Review Task Force A task force created to examine the classifications of past and current imagery to determine whether the material would be useful to users outside of the traditional intelligence community, especially if the classifications could be downgraded. USIS 95
classification survey See field inspection. HDBK-850
Classified Hydrographic Information Processing System (CHIPS) The NIMA data base which provides navigation update information for classified charts and publications. HDBK-850
Classified Notice to Mariners (NTM) NIMA publication which provides corrective data applicable to classifies charts and publications. This information is also accessible through the Classified Hydrographic Information Processing System (CHIPS). HDBK-850
clear text encoding The encoding of information that only uses 8-bit byte values corresponding to the set of characters G(02/00) through G(07/14) of ISO 8859-1 . CEN/TC 287
clearing y-parallax See relative orientation. HDBK-850
client The code or process that invokes an operation on an object. CORBA 2.2
client {DII COE} A computer program, such as a mission application, that requires a service. Clients are consumers of data while servers are producers of data. DII COE IRTS
client/server A particular kind of computing architectural model in which consumers (clients) and producers (servers) cooperate to create an application. Clients request services from servers, while servers may service one or more clients simultaneously. A typical example of a server is a database server. An example of a client is a software component that allows an operator to prepare a query, pass the query to the database, and then display the results to the operator. DII COE IRTS
client-server architecture Any network-based software system that uses client software to request a specific service, and corresponding server software to provide the service from another computer on the network. FED STD 1037C
clinometer A simple instrument used for measuring the degree of slope in percentage or in angular measure. HDBK-850
clipping 1. (GIS) The process of subdividing overlapping polygons to produce all combinations of separate unique polygons. Also called complexing. 2. (computer graphics) The severing of that portion of a line segment which falls outside a predefined frame. HDBK-850
clock correction The quantity which is added, algebraically, to the time shown by a clock to obtain the time of a given meridian. If the clock is slow, the correction is positive; if fast, negative. When applied to a chronometer it is called chronometer correction. HDBK-850
clock rate The amount gained or lost by a clock in a unit of time. When applied to a chronometer, it is called chronometer rate. HDBK-850
clockwise angle See angle to right. HDBK-850
close range-unmanned aerial vehicle A subset of short-range UAV systems under development. Designed to provide near-real-time reconnaissance; surveillance; target acquisition; target spotting; electronic and nuclear, biological and chemical warfare . Its range extends out to 30 km beyond the forward line of own troops (FLOT) for divisions and subordinate levels of command. USIS 95
closed circuit television An in-house/organization multivideo system. USIS 95
closed traverse A survey traverse which starts and ends upon the same station, or upon stations whose relative positions have been determined by other surveys of equal or higher order of accuracy. HDBK-850
closest approach 1. The event that occurs when two planets or other celestial bodies are nearest to each other as they orbit about the Sun or other primary focii. 2. The place or time of such an event. 3. (satellite surveying) The time and location of the satellite when it is closest to the observer/receiver antenna. HDBK-850
closing The act of finishing a survey process so that the accuracy may be checked. HDBK-850
closing corner A corner established where a survey line intersects a previously fixed boundary at a point between corners. The closing corner is located by law at the actual point of intersection without regard to its monumented location. HDBK-850
closing error See error of closure, definition 1. HDBK-850
closing the horizon Measuring the last of a series of horizontal angles at a station, required to make the series complete around the horizon. At any station, the sum of the horizontal angles between adjacent lines should equal 360. HDBK-850
closing township corner 1. (USPLS) The point of intersection of a guide meridian or a range line with a previously fixed standard parallel, or a base line. 2. The point of intersection of any township or range line with a previously fixed boundary at a point between previously established corners. See also township corner. HDBK-850
closure See error of closure, definition 1. HDBK-850
closure of horizon See error of closure, definition 6. HDBK-850
closure of traverse See error of closure, definition 8. HDBK-850
closure of triangle See error of closure, definition 7. HDBK-850
cloud coverage data Data that defines amount of cloud cover on an image. USIS 95
cloud free return The percentage of an image that is interpretable. USIS 95
cluster A configuration of engineering objects forming a single unit of deactivation, checkpointing, reactivation, recovery, and migration. A segment of virtual memory containing objects is an example of a cluster. RM-ODP
clustering operations Operations allowing one to agglomerate (cluster) individual items or features into groups. HDBK-850
coaltitude The complement of altitude, or 90 minus the altitude. The term has significance only when used in connection with altitude measured from the celestial horizon, when it is synonymous with zenith distance. HDBK-850
coast pilot See sailing directions. HDBK-850
coastal chart A nautical chart intended for offshore navigation of vessels having a need for positions relative to the coast. Depicted information supports coastal navigation and military operations. Produced from 1:100.000 to 1:1,000,000 scale. HDBK-850
coastal refraction (JCS) The change of the direction of travel of a radio ground wave as it passes from land to sea or from sea to land. Also called land effect; shoreline effect. HDBK-850
coastlining The process of obtaining data from which the coastline can be drawn on a chart. HDBK-850
coast-survey method See triangle-of-error method. HDBK-850
coated lens A lens whose air glass surfaces have been coated with a thin transparent film of such index of refraction as to minimize the light loss by reflection. This reflection loss for uncoated lenses amounts to approximately 4 percent per air glass surface. Also called bloomed lens. HDBK-850
code 1. A system of letters or symbols, and rules for their association by means of which information can be represented or communicated. 2. A symbol used in a code. ISO/TC 211
codeclination The complement of the declination; it carries the same sign as the declination; equal to the declination of the celestial pole nearest a celestial position minus the declination of the celestial positional. HDBK-850
Coder/Decoder (CODEC) Hardware or software responsible for encoding, decoding, compression, and decompression of audio and video signals. Multimedia
COE Kernel {DII COE} That subset of the COE-component segments that is required on all platforms. As a minimum, this consists of the operating system, windowing software, security, segment installation software, and an Executive Manager. The DII COE is designed to minimize the size of the kernel so that minimal resources are required at each platform. Definition of the kernel is independent of whether the platform will be used as a database server, an applications server, or a client platform. DII COE IRTS
COE-Component Segment {DII COE} A segment that is contained within the COE. All software in COE-based systems is packaged as a segment, including those within the COE itself. Strictly speaking, "COE component" is a segment attribute rather than a separate segment type. Segments are specifically identified as COE components because specialized processing is performed on them during software installation, and they are handled more rigorously in the development cycle. DII COE IRTS
coefficient of refraction The ratio of the refraction angle at the point of observation to the angle at the center of the Earth which is formed by the observer, the center of the, Earth, and point observed. HDBK-850
cogeoid See compensated geoid. HDBK-850
coincidence 1. In the measurement of angles with theodolites, the instant at which two diametrically opposed index marks on the circle are in perfect optical alignment and appear to form a continuous line across the dividing line of the circle. 2. (surveying) A prismatic arrangement common to leveling instruments wherein one-half of opposite ends of the leveling bubble are brought into view in a single image. Coincidence is achieved when the two halves of the bubble ends match. 3. (pendulum) An exact agreement in occurrence of a prescribed phase of the beat of a free-swinging pendulum and a prescribed phase of the beat of a clock or chronometer. HDBK-850
coincidence method 1. (theodolite) The procedure by which the circles of the theodolite are read. See coincidence, definition 1. 2. (pendulum) The determination of the period of a free-swinging pendulum by observing the time interval between coincidences with a clock pendulum or chronometer beat. HDBK-850
colatitude The complement of the latitude, or 90 minus the latitude. Colatitude forms one side, zenith to pole, of the astronomic triangle. It is the side opposite the celestial body. HDBK-850
collaboration Working together in a joint effort (modified from the American Heritage Dictionary). Multimedia
collaborative exploitation and analysis Exploitation and analysis with multiple participants in real time sharing resources across linked or networked systems. Efficient utilization of globally distributed imagery data, processing and analytical resources and expertise. USIS 95
collateral 1. In general, national security information (to include imagery), classified Top Secret, Secret or Confidential that is not in the Sensitive Compartmented Information category. 2. A non-IMINT intelligence product or report. 3. Files of information used by imagery analysts to support imagery exploitation activities. USIS 95
collation 1. The verification of the order, number, and date of maps. 2. The assembling of pages of publications in sequence. HDBK-850
collection Collection includes the acquisition of information and the provision of this information to processing and/or production elements. JPUB 2-0
collection The process of translating a tasking request into a raw intelligence source. This includes the determination of sensor-specific acquisition parameters, the direction of the asset, the collection of the intelligence information, and the transfer of that information to the primary collection site. USIS 95
collection (acquisition) 1. (JCS) The obtaining of information in any manner, to include direct observation, liaison with official agencies, or solicitation from official, unofficial, or public sources. 2. The process of arranging for and obtaining existing data from one or more sources for a library file or a specific mapping, charting, and geodetic production program. HDBK-850
Collection Advisor for Relocatable Targets Software that describes and justifies collection requirements, monitors collection performance, and assesses alternative collection strategies. USIS 95
collection and imagery processing integration The concept of onboard processing (OBP) integrates the functional processes of spaceborne (or airborne) collection with imagery processing. USIS 95
collection anomaly feedback Provided to the applicable program office by CIO [NIMA] to aid in the improvement, enhancement and current operating capabilities of a sensor. USIS 95
collection coordinates The latitude and longitude used as the primary aim point by the imaging system to acquire coverage of a target. USIS 95
Collection Coordination and Intelligence Requirements Management The Allied Command Europe (NATO) structure that governs the submission of non-US (NATO) intelligence requirements. USIS 95
Collection Coordination Facility Now the Defense Collection Coordination Center (DCCC). USIS 95
Collection Coordination Facility Support System The system used by DIA requirement managers in the Defense Collection Coordination Center (DCCC) to manage time-sensitive IMINT requirements. USIS 95
collection frequency The time between successive imaging of a target. USIS 95
collection management See Requirements Management. USIS 95
Collection Management Support Terminal A stand-alone personal computer with Navy-developed software that assists the collection manager in the performance of his duty. It is basically used as a storage and retrieval system for collection requirements. USIS 95
collection operations management Primarily an operations staff function based on the collection tasking and mission guidance developed in support of information requirements. This function relies heavily on supporting organizations and other units or agencies that own and operate collection assets or resources. Collection operations management consists of the following tasks: (1) planning, scheduling, and control of collection operations. (2) Execution of collection operations. (3) Exploitation and dissemination of results. USIS 95
collection requirement 1. An established intelligence need considered in the allocation of intelligence resources to fulfill the essential elements of information and other intelligence needs. 2. An expression of an intelligence information need that requires collection and carries at least an implicit authorization to commit resources in acquiring the needed information. 3. A request for discipline-specific collection action to satisfy a specific or general intelligence information need. 4. An IMINT, SIGINT, HUMINT, or MASINT requirement for intelligence collection against a stated objective. Collection requirements are processed and reviewed as immediates, routines, or standings depending on the fleeting or nonfleeting nature of an issue. USIS 95
collection requirements management More generally referred to as requirements management. Collection requirements management is primarily an intelligence staff function accomplished in conjunction with an all-source intelligence production organization. It begins with the collection plan and continues through the following tasks: (1) receipt and analysis of requirements; (2) determination of asset/resource availability/capability; (3) task/request tasking or resources; (4) evaluation of reporting/user satisfaction; (5) update of collection plan. USIS 95
Collection Requirements Management Application (CRMA) When fielded, CRMA will be an automated intelligence collection requirements management system. It will consist of separate subsystems for processing and satisfaction following HUMINT, SIGINT, and IMINT collection requirements. See Joint Collection Management Tools (JCMT). USIS 95
collection satisfaction accounting unit The unit of accounting for determining collection satisfaction of the various target types. USIS 95
collection strategy Definition, compilation, evaluation, and documentation of imagery collection requirements. USIS 95
collection tasking management Collection tasking management encompasses the capabilities required to convert collection nominations into approved, prioritized collection requirements and pass them to a collection resource for action. USIS 95
collimate 1. (physics and astronomy) To render parallel to a certain line or direction; to render parallel, as rays of light; to adjust the line of sight or lens axis of an optical instrument so that it is in its proper position relative to the other parts of the instrument. 2. (photogrammetry) To adjust the fiducial marks of a camera so that they define the principal point. Also called adjustment for collimation; collimation adjustment. See also collimating marks. HDBK-850
collimating eyepiece A prismatic eyepiece used with a collimator. HDBK-850
collimating marks Index marks, rigidly connected with the camera body, which form images on the negative. These images are used to determine the position of the optical center or principal point of the imagery. Also called fiducial marks. HDBK-850
collimation adjustment See collimate, definition 2. HDBK-850
collimation axis In an optical instrument, the line through the rear nodal point of the objective lens that is precisely parallel with the center line of the instrument. HDBK-850
collimation error The angle by which the line of sight of an optical instrument differs from its collimation axis. Also called error of collimation. HDBK-850
collimation plane The plane described by the collimation axis of a telescope of a transit when rotated around its horizontal axis. HDBK-850
collimator An optical device for artificially creating a target at infinite distance, a beam of parallel rays of light; used in testing and adjusting certain optical instruments. It usually consists of a converging lens and a target, a system or arrangement of cross hairs, placed at the principal focus of the lens. See also autocollimator; collimating eyepiece; vertical collimator. HDBK-850
collocation Targets are considered to be collocated when they are within 1 nautical mile of each other and serve the same purpose. USIS 95
color composite A composite in which the component images are shown in different colors. See also composite. HDBK-850
color gradients See hypsometric tinting. HDBK-850
color mixture curve A graph representing tristimulus value for unit flux of spectral energy, shown as a function of wavelength. HDBK-850
color mixture data Amounts of components required in a three-color colorimeter to match various wavelengths. HDBK-850
color plate A general term for the press plate from which any given color is printed. Normally, the term is modified to reflect a special color or type of plate, such as brown plate or contour plate. See also process plates. HDBK-850
color proof A single or composite copy of all colors of a polychrome (multicolor) printing which may be produced by any method. HDBK-850
color proof process A photo- mechanical printing process which makes possible the combining of negative separations by successive exposures to produce a composite color proof on a vinyl plastic sheet. The method is usually referred to by the manufacturer's trade name of the materials used. HDBK-850
color registration guide A visual display on a litho copy of a chart which accurately reflects the amount and direction of misregistration between the graticule and certain significant overprint. See also register marks. HDBK-850
color separation 1. The process of preparing a separate drawing, engraving, or negative for each color required in the production of lithographed map or chart. 2. A photographic process or electronic scanning procedure using color filters to separate multicolored copy into separate images of each of the three primary colors HDBK-850
color separation drawing One of a set of drawings which contains similar or related features, such as drainage or culture. There are as many drawings as there are colors to be shown on the lithographed copy. HDBK-850
color separation guide See guide. HDBK-850
colorimeter An instrument designed for the direct measurement of color. HDBK-850
colorspace A system for measuring and describing color, e.g., CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black) is a common colorspace for printing. Multimedia
colures The hour circles through the equinoxes and the solstices. See also equinoctial colure; solstitial colure. HDBK-850
coma An aberration affecting the sharpness of images off the axis in which rays from a point object off the axis passing through a given circular zone of the lens come to a focus in a circle rather than a point, and the circles formed by rays through different zones are of different sizes and are located at different distances from the axis. Therefore, the image of a point object is comet-shaped. HDBK-850
combat chart A special-purpose chart of a land-sea area using the characteristics of a map to represent the land area and the characteristics of a chart to represent the sea area, with such special characteristics as to make the chart most useful in military operations, particularly amphibious operations. Produced at 1:50,000 scale. Also called map chart. HDBK-850
combat information Unevaluated data, gathered by or provided directly to the tactical commander which, due to its highly perishable nature or the criticality of the situation, cannot be processed into tactical intelligence in time to satisfy the customer's tactical intelligence needs. USIS 95
combat intelligence That knowledge of the enemy, weather and geographical features required by a commander in the planning and conduct of combat operations. USIS 95
Combat Intelligence System A system being developed by the Air Combat Command that will provide intelligence support to combat operations and combat planning functions. Its automated characteristics will provide the capability to pass situation assessments, threat data, and targeting materials to combat operations and mission planning systems. USIS 95
combat service support element (CSSE) The Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF) element that is task organized to provide the full range of combat service support necessary to accomplish the MAGTF mission. CSSE can provide supply, maintenance, transportation, deliberate engineer, health, postal, disbursing, enemy prisoner of war, automated information systems, exchange, utilities, legal, and graves registration services. The CSSE varies in size from a Marine expeditionary unit (MEU) service support group (MSSG) to a force service support group (FSSG). Normally, there is only one combat service support element in a MAGTF. JPUB 1-02
combat support agency Any organization charged by the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff to provide support to military operations. USIS 95
Combat Support Agency Assessment System A biannual review of the quality of support given to military operations. USIS 95
Combat Support Agency Director's Report A biannual report written by the heads of Combat Support Agencies for review by the Unified Commands and the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff. USIS 95
Combat Support Agency Responsiveness & Readiness Report A biannual report written by the Commander-in-Chief for review by the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff and Combat Support Agencies. USIS 95
combatant command One of the Commands established by the President. See also unified combatant command. USIS 95
combination plate Halftone and line work on one plate. Also, two or more subjects combined on the same plate. See also process plates. HDBK-850
Combined Intelligence Operations Center The intelligence center aboard carriers. USIS 95
COMIREX Requirements Structure Provided a standardized methodology for imagery users to define, submit, and monitor imagery collection, production and distribution, exploitation, and reporting. It was replaced by the Imagery Requirements Structure (IRS) when the Requirements Management System (RMS) became operational. USIS 95
command and control The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned forces in the accomplishment of the mission. Command and control functions are performed through an arrangement of personnel, equipment, communications, facilities, and procedures employed by a commander in planning, directing, coordinating, and controlling forces and operations in the accomplishment of the mission. JPUB 1-02
command element (CE) The Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF) headquarters. The CE is a permanent organization composed of the commander, general or executive and special staff sections, headquarters section, and requisite communications and service support facilities. The CE provides command, control, and coordination essential for effective planning and execution of operations by the other three elements of the MAGTF. There is only one CE in a MAGTF. JPUB 1-02
Command Information Libraries (CIL) Libraries whose access will be controlled by their parent command (e.g., Unified Command) or agency (e.g., service intelligence agency). The parent command will also determine the content of each of these imagery libraries. USIS 95
Command Intelligence Architecture Plan An Intelligence and Communications Architectures (INCA) program used to document intelligence-related activities of a Command and its component commands. USIS 95
Command Management System United States Southern Command's (USSOUTHCOM's) theater command and control (C2) system to U.S. embassies and U.S. agents in host nations. USIS 95
Command, Control, and Communications The capabilities required by commanders to exercise command and control of their forces. USIS 95
command, control, communications, and computer systems Integrated systems of doctrine, procedures, organizational structures, personnel, equipment, facilities, and communications designed to support a commander's exercise of command and control across the range of military operations. JPUB 1-02
Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) An integrated system of doctrine, procedures, organizational structure, personnel, equipment, facilities, communications, and supporting intelligence activities that provides authorities at all levels with timely and adequate data to plan, direct, and control their activities. USIS 95
Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence (C4I) An integrated system of doctrine, procedures, organizational structure, personnel, equipment, facilities, communications, and supporting intelligence activities that provides authorities at all levels with timely and adequate data to plan, direct, and control their activities. USIS 95
commander support That portion of the intelligence effort that provides direct support to the commander/decisionmaker and his staff at all levels. Assessments, analysis, tailored briefings, situation reports, and situational awareness are provided as required by the commander/decisionmaker, and dictated by the situation. USIS 95
Commander, Landing Force The senior commander of a Marine air ground task force (MAGTF) embarked on amphibious task force shipping. USIS 95
commercial item
  1. Any item customarily used by the general public for other than governmental purposes, that has been sold, leased, or licensed to the general public, or that has been offered for sale, lease or license to the general public.
  2. Any item that evolved from an item described in 1) above through advances in technology or performance that is not yet available in the commercial market, but will be available in time to meet the delivery requirements of the solicitation.
  3. Any item that, but for modifications of a type customarily available in the commercial market or minor modifications made to meet DoD requirements, would satisfy the criteria in 1) or 2) above.
  4. Any combination of items meeting the requirements of 1, 2, or 3 above or 5 below that are of a type customarily combined and sold in combination to the general public.
  5. Installation services, maintenance services, repair services, training services, and other services if such services are procured for support of any item referred to paragraphs 1, 2, 3. Or 4 above, if the sources of such services
  • offers such services to the general public and the DoD simultaneously and under similar terms and conditions and
  • offers to use the same work force for providing the DoD with such services as the source used for providing such services to the general public.
  1. Services offered and sold competitively, in substantial quantities, in the commercial marketplace based on established catalog prices of specific tasks performed and under standard commercial terms and conditions.
  2. Any item, combination of items or service referred to in 1 through 6 above notwithstanding the fact that the item or service is transferred between or among separate divisions, subsidiaries, or affiliates of a contractor.
  3. A nondevelopmental item developed exclusively at private expense and sold in substantial quantities, on a competitive basis, to State and local governments.
[DRAFT 6/30/95 NDI HANDBOOK/ Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act of 1994 DoD 5000.37H]
JTA 2.0
commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) Refers to an item of hardware or software that has been produced by a contractor and is available for general purchase. Such items are at the unit level or higher. Such items must have been sold and delivered to government or commercial customers must have passed customer's acceptance testing, be operating under customer's control, and within the user environment. Further, such items must have meaningful reliability, maintainability, and logistics historical data. TAFIM 3.0
commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software Software that is available commercially. Examples include versions of Unix, X Windows, or Motif, as well as standard products such as Oracle, Sybase, and Informix. DII COE IRTS
commitment An administrative reservation of funds based on firm procurement requests, unaccepted customer orders, directives, and equivalent instruments. [DOD 7000.14-R] [DISA/DC5] DISA CFS
Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) CEOS was created in 1984 as a result of the International Economic Summit of Industrialized Nations and serves as the focal point for international coordination of space-related, Earth observation activities. Policy and technical issues of common interest related to the whole spectrum of Earth observation satellite missions and data received from such are addressed. CEOS encourages complementarily and compatibility among space- borne Earth observing systems through coordination in mission planning, promotion of full and non-discriminatory data access, setting of data product standards, and development of compatible data products, services, and applications. Members are those national and international government agencies with funding and program responsibilities for a satelliteEarth observation program currently operating or in the later stages of system development. CEOS Web Site
Committee on Imagery Requirements and Exploitation (COMIREX) A DCI committee that became part of the Central Imagery Office [now part of NIMA] on 1 June 1992; the term is no longer used except in reference to the COMIREX number used by NPIC [now part of NIMA] in the Internal Use field. USIS 2-1.1
Common Applications Environment (CAE) The X/Open term for a computer environment in which applications can be ported across X/Open vendor systems. It includes standards for the operating system, languages, networking protocols, and data management. TAFIM 3.0
Common Business-Oriented Language (COBOL) COBOL is a computer programming language used extensively in mainframes and minicomputers for business applications. [HCI Style Guide] DISA CFS
common control (JCS) Horizontal and vertical map or chart location of points in the target area and position area, tied in with the horizontal and vertical control in use by two or more units. May be established by firing, survey, or combination of both, or by assumption. See also control point; field control; ground control. HDBK-850
common countdown A collection strategy in which imagery from any of two or more collection systems can equally satisfy the collection requirement. USIS 95
common establishment See establishment of the port. HDBK-850
Common Facilities {CORBA} Facilities useful in many application domains and which are made available through OMA- [Object Management Architecture-] compliant class interfaces. OMA Guide
Common Imagery Ground/Surface System (CIGSS) The restructured Joint Services Imagery Processing System (JSIPS). A project that combines current imagery ground/surface systems into a single DARO project. Supporting airborne reconnaissance systems, CIG/SS outlines the interoperability, performance, and commonality requirements and standards for DoD ground/surface-based imagery processing and exploitation systems. The objective is to enable all CIG/SS compliant systems to receive, process, exploit and report any imagery source regardless of platform or sensor type. USIS 95
Common Intermediate Format (CIF) A compromise television display format adopted by the ITU which is relatively easy to derive from both PAL and NTSC video signals. Multimedia
Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) An ORB standard endorsed by the OMG (Object Management Group). An ORB is software that handles the communication of messages between objects in a distributed, multi-platform environment. Freedman 1995
Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) An architecture that enables pieces of programs, called objects, to communicate with one another regardless of what programming language they were written in or what operating system they're running on. CORBA was developed by an industry consortium known as the Object Management Group (OMG). There are several implementations of CORBA, the most widely used being IBM's SOM and DSOM architectures. CORBA has also been embraced by Netscape as part of its Netscape ONE (Open Network Environment) platform. Two competing models are Microsoft's COM and DCOM and Sun Microsystems' RMI. PC Webopaedia
Common Operating Environment (COE) See Defense Information Infrastructure Common Operating Environment (DII COE). DII MP
Common Support Application (CSA) CSAs provide the architectural framework for managing and disseminating information flow throughout the system, and for sharing information among applications. CSAs contain facilities for processing and displaying common data formats and for information integration and visualization. DII COE IRTS
commonality Items of equipment are "common" if they are compatible, can be operated and maintained by personnel from different Services, and have interchangeable repair parts and consumable items. USIS 95
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) The confederation of states after the breakup of the USSR. The CIS was established in December 1991 to coordinate intercommonwealth relations and to provide a mechanism for the orderly dissolution of the USSR. Members include Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. USIS 95
communication interface That part of the application program interface (API) devoted to communications with other application software, external data transport facilities, and devices. IEEE P1003.0
communication services interface (CSI) The boundary across which access to services for interaction between internal application software entities and application platform external entities is provided. IEEE P1003.0
communications The capability to electronically transfer imagery and imagery-related products within the Intelligence Community and among operational users. It consists of a variety of network and transmission systems that provide the physical means for interconnecting and disseminating data within and between the IMINT nodes. USIS 95
communications and computer infrastructures For the purposes of compatibility, integration, and interoperability, the communications and computer infrastructure is the underlying communications and computer platforms and value added services (i.e., EC / EDI, security, Defense Message System, database management, directory services) that support C3I and mission support automated information systems. DODI 4630.8
communications intelligence (COMINT) (DOD) Technical and intelligence information derived from foreign communications by other than the intended recipients. JPUB 1-02
communications interface The physical path supporting the transfer of information between two entities. Protocol, routing, syntax, and form of the data stream are defined as part of the communications interface. USIS 95
communications link The cables, wires, or paths that the electrical, optical, or radio wave signals traverse. DISA CFS
communications network A set of products, concepts, and services that enable the connection of computer systems for the purpose of transmitting data and other forms (e.g., voice and video) between the systems. TAFIM 3.0
communications node A node that is either internal to the communications network (e.g., routers, bridges, or repeaters) or located between the end device and the communications network to operate as a gateway. [TA] DISA CFS
communications protocol A set of formal rules required to establish, maintain, and discontinue communications from the source to destination points. [Joint Pub 6-02.1] DISA CFS
communications satellite (JCS) An orbiting vehicle which relays signals between communications stations. They are of two types: (1) active communications satellite-a satellite which receives, regenerates, and retransmits signals between stations; (2) passive communications satellite-a satellite which reflects communications signals between stations. HDBK-850
communications security (DOD) The protection resulting from all measures designed to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from the possession and study of telecommunications, or to mislead unauthorized persons in their interpretation of the results of such possession and study. JPUB 1-02
communications services A service of the Support Application entity of the Technical Reference Model (TRM) that provides the capability to compose, edit, send, receive, forward, and manage electronic and voice messages and real time information exchange services in support of interpersonal conferencing. TAFIM 3.0
communications support processor A DoDIIS standard processor for communications systems. USIS 95
Communications Support Segment Part of the Joint Services Imagery Processing System (JSIPS). USIS 95
communications system A set of assets (transmission media, switching nodes, interfaces, and control devices) that will establish linkage between users and devices. TAFIM 3.0
community A configuration of (enterprise) objects formed to meet an objective. The objective is expressed as a contract which specifies how the objective can be met. RM-ODP
Community Files {DII COE} Files that reside outside a segment's assigned directory. To prevent conflict among segments, community files may be modified only through the COE installation tools. Examples of community files include /etc/passwd, /etc/hosts, and /etc/services. DII COE IRTS
Community Geospatial Information Training Council (CGITC) A NIMA-chaired community forum (DoD, National, Civil) sanctioned by the Director Central Intelligence and Deputy Secretary of Defense Program Guidance. The Council validates overall geospatial information training requirements, develops and recommends geospatial information training strategies, evaluates geospatial information training effectiveness and efficiency, and reviews and approves geospatial information system training plans and funding. See also Community Imagery Training Council (CITC). [The National Imagery and Mapping College (NIMC) chairs the CITC and provides staff support for the Council] NIMC
Community Imagery Needs Forecast Formerly the Future Requirements Data Base (FRDB). USIS 95
Community Imagery Training Council (CITC) A NIMA-chaired community forum (DoD, National, Civil) sanctioned by the Director Central Intelligence and Deputy Secretary of Defense Program Guidance. The Council validates overall imagery training requirements, develops and recommends imagery training strategies, evaluates imagery training effectiveness and efficiency, and reviews and approves imagery system training plans and funding. See also Community Geospatial Information Training Council (CGITC). [The National Imagery and Mapping College (NIMC) chairs the CITC and provides staff support for the Council] NIMC
Community Management Staff (CMS)/Advanced Technology Program A component within the CMS that looks to the future for sensors and platforms. USIS 95
Community On-Line Intelligence System A communication network that allows access to several intelligence systems and provides gateways to other community networks. USIS 95
Community Support Center A NIMA-led community-wide collection management facility. USIS 95
compact disc-interactive (CD-I) A compact disc format containing prerecorded digital video, audio, and optical text data. Data cannot be erased or altered. CD-I complies with the Philips/Sony Green Book Standard. CD-I readers are marketed as accessories for TV sets. HDBK-850
compact disc-read only memory (CD-ROM) A standard 12 cm plastic optical disc created by Philips and Sony to store large amounts (about 600 megabytes) of digital information in microscopic pits which can be read by a laser beam. Recorded data cannot be erased or altered. CD-ROM complies with the Philips/Sony Yellow Book Standard. HDBK-850
Compact Video Imaging Transmission System A state-of-the-art imaging terminal designed for manpack and hand-held use in a rugged field environment. Member of the Digital Video Imagery Transmission System (DVITS) family. USIS 95
Compact-disc Read-only-memory (CD-ROM) A laser-encoded 5 1/4-inch optical disc typically used to store text, images, audio, video, and program which can run on computers with CD-ROM drives. Multimedia
compacted data Digital data that have been reduced in volume using a lossless technique. Lossless means no information is lost and all of the original data will be resident when unpacked. [These techniques are designed to remove redundancies and employ special techniques.] HDBK-850
comparative cover (JCS) Coverage of the same area or object taken at different times to show any changes in detail. See also basic cover; cover; coverage. HDBK-850
comparator 1. An instrument or apparatus for measuring a dimension in terms of a standard. 2. A precision optical instrument used to determine the rectangular coordinates of a point with respect to another point on any plane surface, such as a photographic plate. 3. (surveying) An instrument for comparing standards of length; for subdividing such standards; or for determining a standard length of measuring devices (bar, tape, etc.). See also field comparator; monocomparator; stereocomparator; Vaisala comparator; vertical comparator. HDBK-850
comparator base See field comparator. HDBK-850
compartmentation Formal systems of restricted access to intelligence activities. Such systems are established to protect the sensitive aspects of specific sources, methods, and analytical procedures of foreign intelligence programs. The information is then held within a named compartment and classified by the classification level (e.g., TOP SECRET, SECRET and CONFIDENTIAL) as well as the compartmented name. USIS 95
compartmented-mode workstation A computer terminal that allows users to access only the levels of classified information for which they are approved. USIS 95
compass An instrument for indicating a horizontal reference direction relative to the Earth. See also aperiodic compass; astro compass; Brunton compass; circumferentor; declinatoire; declinometer; Earth inductor compass; gyro compass; gyromagnetic compass; lensatic compass; liquid hand compass; magnetic compass; peep sight compass; prismatic compass. HDBK-850
compass amplitude Amplitude relative to compass east or west. See also amplitude. HDBK-850
compass bearing 1. (navigation) Bearing relative to compass north. See also magnetic bearing, definition 1. 2. (surveying) See magnetic bearing, definition 2. HDBK-850
compass index error The instrument error in the magnetic bearing given by readings of the needle. HDBK-850
compass north (JCS) The uncorrected direction indicated by the north-seeking end of a compass needle. See also magnetic north. [Compass north and magnetic north differ in that the former may be determined by other influences than the Earth's magnetic field.] HDBK-850
compass rose (JCS) A graduated circle, usually marked in degrees indicating directions and printed or inscribed on an appropriate medium. HDBK-850
compass rule A method of balancing a traverse survey. Corrections corresponding to the closing errors in latitude and departure are distributed according to the proportion (length of line to total length of traverse). The compass rule is used when it is assumed that the closing errors are as much due to errors in observed angles as to errors in measured distances. HDBK-850
compass survey A traverse survey which relies on the magnetic needle for orienting the sequence as a whole or for determining the bearings of the lines individually. HDBK-850
compatibility The capability of two or more items or components of equipment or material to exist or function in the same system or environment without mutual interference. [JCS PUB 1] DISA CFS
compatibility Ability of components to interoperate without regard to hardware, data file structure, network, or other attributes. Multimedia
compatibility, integration and interoperability (CI&I) C3I systems, mission support automated information systems, and communications and computer infrastructure of the DII are compatible, integrated, and interoperable when they can be used in conjunction with one another (i.e., as a system of systems) to provide the information (data sharing), including required characteristics such as timeliness, accuracy, and security, required by users to accomplish their missions and tasks. The highest level of compatibility, integration, and interoperability is attained when information is transferred and processed with no intervening gateways or other translation devices, and there is no unnecessary duplication of capabilities. DODI 4630.8
compensated geoid A surface derived from the geoid by application of computed values of the deflection of the vertical which depend upon the topographic and isostatic compensation. Also called cogeoid. HDBK-850
compensating backsights and foresights When backsight and foresight distances are equal at a given position of a level instrument, the effects of curvature, refraction, and lack of adjustment of line of sight (if bubble is leveled when taking a rod reading) are compensated for. Backsight and foresight distances are commonly controlled by the use of pacing or stadia. HDBK-850
compensating base-line measuring apparatus A base apparatus having a length element composed of two metals having different coefficients of thermal expansion, so arranged and connected that the differential expansion of its components will maintain a constant length of the element under all temperature conditions of use. HDBK-850
compensating error An error that tends to offset a companion error and thus obscure or reduce the effect of each. HDBK-850
compensating lens (photogrammetry) A lens introduced into an optical system to correct for radial distortion. HDBK-850
compensation plate (photogrammetry) A glass plate having a surface ground to a predetermined shape, for insertion in the optical system of a diapositive printer or plotting instrument, to compensate for radial distortion introduced by the camera lens. HDBK-850
compilation 1. (JCS) Selection, assembly, and graphic presentation of all relevant information required for the preparation of a map or chart. Such information may be derived from other maps or charts or from other sources. 2. (photogrammetry) The production of a new or recompiled map, chart, or related product from aerial photographs and geodetic control data by use of photogrammetric instruments. Also called photogrammetric compilation; stereocompilation. See also recompilation. HDBK-850
compilation history Complete information regarding the development of a map or chart. It explains problems encountered and their solution, and aids in simplifying the research and analysis of source materials considered for compilation or revision of other maps or charts. The compilation history contains information on the planning factors, source materials utilized, control, compilation methods, drafting, reproduction, and edit procedures. HDBK-850
compilation instructions Written directions describing cartographic sources and their use in determining information to be compiled. Compilation instructions are not to be confused with specifications. HDBK-850
compilation manuscript The original drawing, or group of drawings, of a map or chart as compiled or constructed from various data on which cartographic and related detail is delineated in colors on a stable-base medium. A compilation manuscript may consist of a single drawing called a base manuscript, or because of congestion, several overlays may be prepared showing vegetation, relief, names, and other information. Since the latter is usually the case, the base and its appropriate overlays are collectively termed the compilation manuscript. HDBK-850
compilation scale The scale at which a map or chart is delineated on the original manuscript. This scale may vary from that of the reproduction scale. HDBK-850
compiled map A map incorporating information collected from various sources; not compiled from survey data made for the map in question. HDBK-850
completeness The primary quality parameter describing the degree of conformance of a geographic subset compared to its nominal ground with respect to the presence of objects, association instances, and preperty instances . CEN/TC 287
complex feature A feature composed of other features. See feature. ISO/TC 211
compliance {DII COE} An integer value, called the compliance level, which measures (a) the degree to which a segment or system achieves conformance with the rules, standards, and specifications described by the COE, (b) the degree to which the segment or system is suitable for integration with the DII COE reference implementation, and (c) the degree to which the segment or system makes use of COE services. Compliance is measured for segments and COE-based systems. It is important to note that compliance is a matter of degree. It is usually not an "all or nothing" proposition, but it is possible to fail to meet any COE objectives and hence be declared totally non-compliant. Compliance is measured in four areas, called compliance categories. The four categories are Runtime Environment, Architectural Compatibility, Style Guide, and Software Quality. The higher the level of compliance, the higher the level of interoperability with other COE-based systems. DII COE IRTS
compliance {JTA} Compliance is enumerated in an implementation/migration plan. A system is compliant with the JTA if it meets, or is implementing an approved plan to meet, all applicable JTA mandates. JTA 2.0
Compliance Category {DII COE} One of the four areas (Runtime Environment, Style Guide, Architectural Compatibility, Software Quality) in which DII compliance is measured. These four categories form a spectrum for measuring compliance with regard to COE compatibility and degree of interoperability (Runtime Environment), user friendliness (Style Guide), product longevity (Architectural Compatibility), and program risk (Software Quality). DII COE IRTS
Compliance Level {DII COE} The degree to which a segment is DII-compliant within a specific compliance category. Compliance levels are integer values only. DII COE IRTS
component 1. One of the parts into which a vector quantity can be divided. For example, the Earth's magnetic force at any point can be divided into horizontal and vertical components. 2. One of the parts of a complete system. See also constituent. HDBK-850
component A stand alone 'object' that is not bound to a particular program, computer language, or implementation. It is not a complete application, but can be used to build cheap, personalized applications Shah 1996
component Level of organization immediately below the Command and above the Subcomponent in the Unified Command structure and is Service-specific; i.e., the Army component of EUCOM is USAREUR. USIS 95
component command A command consisting of the component commander and all those individuals, units, detachments, organizations and installations under the command that has been assigned to the Unified Command. USIS 95
Component Database {DII COE} Individual database within a multi-database design. DII COE IRTS
Component profile A profile that is made up of a formally defined subset of a single standard. IEEE P1003.0
composite Reproduction from a successive series of images. A proof made by exposing color separation negatives one after the other on a single sheet of paper. Used in checking and editing. Also called composite print. See also color composite; color proof; double burn. HDBK-850
composite air photography (JCS) Air photographs made with a camera having one principal lens and two or more surrounding and oblique lenses. The several resulting photographs are corrected or transformed in printing to permit assembly as verticals with the same scale. HDBK-850
Composite Compliance {DII COE} The DII compliance value assigned to a collection of segments. The purpose of a composite compliance value is to describe the degree of compliance a system achieves when it may contain COE-component segments that themselves are not Level 8 compliant. The composite compliance level for an arbitrary collection of segments is the compliance level of the least compliant segment. Chapter 2 provides formulas for computing the composite compliance level for a COE-based system, and for systems which contain both COE and non-COE based platforms. DII COE IRTS
composite data element A data element containing two or more component data elements . CEN/TC 287
composite feature A feature composed of several related features. See also superfeature. HDBK-850
composite print See composite. HDBK-850
composite warfare commander The officer in tactical command is normally the composite warfare commander. However, the CWC concept allows an officer in tactical command to delegate tactical command to the CWC. The CWC wages combat operations to counter threats to the force and to maintain tactical sea control with assets assigned while the officer in tactical command retains close control of power projections and strategic sea control operations. USIS 95
composition of objects A combination of two or more objects yielding a new object, at a different level of abstraction. The characteristics of the new object are determined by the objects being combined and by the way they are combined. The behavior of the composite object is the corresponding composition of the behavior of the component objects. The composition of a collection of objects yields an equivalent object representing the composition. The behavior of this object is often referred to simply as the behavior of the collection of objects. RM-ODP
compound harmonic motion The projection of two or more uniform circular motions on a diameter of the circle of such motion. HDBK-850
compound pendulum Any actual pendulum. A compound pendulum may be considered as composed of an indefinitely large number of material particles, at different distances from the center of suspension, each constituting a simple pendulum. The period of vibration (oscillation) of the compound pendulum may be taken as a resultant of the periods of the simple pendulums of which it is composed. HDBK-850
Compressed Aeronautical Chart (CAC) A data base of processed Equal Arc Second Raster Chart/Map (ARC) Digitized Raster Graphics (ADRG) data produced by the U.S. Navy, and distributed by NIMA. ADRG digital map images are converted from the Equal ARC system frame of reference into the Tesselated Spheroid Model-IV (TS) projection using a sline fit. The TS data are then compressed by a factor of approximately 48:1. HDBK-850
Compressed Arc Digitized Raster Graphics (CADRG) CADRG is to be a jointly-coordinated common compression of ARC Digitized Raster Graphics (ADRG) for use in any application requiring rapid display of a map image or manipulation of the image of a map in raster form. CADRG achieves a nominal compression of 55:1 over ADRG. CADRG has a data density of 169 pixels/inch at 1:1 display scale; it can be decompressed for 8-bit (216 colors) or 4-bit (16 colors) displays. NIMA LOP
compressed image An image that has been passed through a compression algorithm and not decompressed. USIS 95
compression 1. A method of reducing the volume of digital data such that the data can be restored (decompressed) to its original form. Lossless compression (e.g., run length encoding) retains all the information contained in the data prior to compression. Lossy compression (e.g., vector quantization) causes some reduction in the information content of the data. 2. See flattening (of the Earth). HDBK-850
compression ratio A ratio of digital storage savings available by compressing data. HDBK-850
Computational Viewpoint A viewpoint which partitions the system into objects which interact at interfaces. The Computational Viewpoint applies to a system and its environment. It enables distribution through functional decomposition of the system. RM-ODP
computed altitude Altitude determined by computation, table, mechanical computer, or graphics. HDBK-850
computed azimuth angle Azimuth angle determined by computation, table, mechanical device, or graphics for a given place and time. HDBK-850
computed bearing Bearing angles determined by computation from known bearings. HDBK-850
computed data method A method of rectification with an autofocus rectifier whereby tilt existing in an aerial photograph is computed and, from these computations, the instrument settings are established mathematically. Rectification is then accomplished without further comparison to template or other guide base. HDBK-850
Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support (CALS) Standards for electronic file format interchange and data management adopted by the U.S. Department of Defense to acquire, process, and disseminate technical information in digital form. CALS will facilitate the transfer of logistic and technical information between industry and Government by leveraging existing international standards. Among the industry standards used in CALS are IGES (CAD, vector graphics), SGML (automated publishing), GRP 4 Raster or TRIF (raster scanned images), and CGM (illustrations). TAFIM 3.0
Computer Aided Design and Drafting (CAD or CADD) CAD systems are used to create maps and plans and are closely related to GIS systems. Although most CAD systems lack certain features essential to GIS analysis, such as the power to manage different spatial coordinate systems and database capabilities, many CAD systems have been developed into full GIS with the addition of necessary functions. OpenGIS Guide
Computer Aided Design/Drafting/ Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) The use of computers to design and produce a product. HDBK-850
Computer Aided Mapping (CAM) Software with the capability of assisting the operator to perform standard mapping functions. Also known as Computer Assisted Mapping. HDBK-850
Computer Aided Tactical Information System (CATIS) / Selective Imagery Dissemination The FORSCOM system to aid in their dissemination of image products. USIS 95
Computer Aided Tactical Information System(CATIS) CATIS is the Air Intelligence Command's primary imagery automated support system providing broad on-line support to imagery analysts, collection managers, and imagery supervisors. It maintains a record of imagery exploitation. USIS 95
computer architecture The functional composition of a system and its components, the interfaces between components, and interfaces with the external environment, including users and other systems. OpenGIS Guide
Computer Assisted Cartography (CAC) The use of automated techniques in map/chart production. HDBK-850
Computer Assisted Manufacturing (CAM) The use of computers in manufacturing. HDBK-850
computer code 1. Source code, the text or instructions of a computer program (usually in a high level language). 2. Object module, a compiled version of the source code, it is machine readable, i.e., in binary. HDBK-850
computer environment The general term describing the people, hardware, software, and databases comprising a single computer system or several network-connected computer systems, and the associated standards. OpenGIS Guide
Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) A set of software tools that automate and contribute to the improvement of the software development process. TAFIM 3.0
concave lens See negative lens. HDBK-850
concealed nomination An imagery resource request that has restricted access due to sensitive information. USIS 95
concept of operations (CONOPS) (JCS) A verbal or graphic statement, in broad outline, of a commander's assumptions or intent in regard to an operation or series of operations. The concept of operations is frequently embodied in campaign plans and operation plans; in the latter case, particularly when the plans cover a series of connected operations to be carried out simultaneously or in succession. The concept is designed to give an overall picture of the operation. It is included primarily for additional clarity of purpose. Also called commander's concept. JPUB 1-02
conceptual data model (CDM) A structured graphical and/or textual representation of concepts and knowledge within an activity. C4ISR AF
conceptual data model (CDM) The relationship and definitions of all data that is used by and influences the other three architecture [views] - operational, systems, and technical. Compare to logical data model (LDM) and physical data model (PDM). UAF-B
conceptual formalism Methods for the creation of conceptual schema. CEN/TC 287
Conceptual Model of the Mission Space (CMMS) One of the three components of the DoD Common Technical Framework (CTF). They are first abstractions of the real world and serve as a frame of reference for simulation development by capturing the basic information about important entities involved in any mission and their key actions and interactions. They are simulation-neutral views of those entities, actions, and interactions occurring in the real world. (DoD 5000.59-P, "Modeling and Simulation Master Plan," October 1995, authorized by DoD Directive 5000.59, January 4, 1994). JTA 2.0
conceptual modelling Identifying and defining types of phenomena and their relationships. CEN/TC 287
conceptual schema An abstract description and definition of the content, structure and restrictions applicable to data about objects. ISO/TC 211
conceptual schema language A ormal language for presenting conceptual schemata. NOTE - Examples of conceptual schema languages are EXPRESS, IDEFIX, and NIAM RDL. ISO/TC 211
concluded angle (triangulation) The third angle of a triangle, not measured, but computed from the two other angles. HDBK-850
condition equation A set of adjustment equations wherein all variables representing parameters have been eliminated from the equations, leaving only variables representing the adjustments to the observed quantities in the equations. A least squares adjustment employing this type of equations is said to be by the condition method, as opposed to the observation method or variation of parameters method. Note that if it is desired to allow a previously established parameter to adjust, rather than hold it rigidly fixed, it should be considered as an observation with an appropriate weight. See also angle equation; azimuth equation; correlate equation; latitude equation; length equation; longitude equation; normal equation; observation equation; perpendicular equation; side equation; side equation tests. HDBK-850
conditional feature A feature or behavior referred to in a standard not essential on all conforming implementations. ITSG Vol. 1
conditional tasking A request for image resource tasking based on occurrence of external events or certain specified parameters. The Imagery Requirements Structure (IRS) component that allows for specifying various conditions which, when satisfied, will trigger one or more responses. USIS 95
conditions A term used in adjustment computations to define parametric requirements of adjusted redundant observations. HDBK-850
cone angle banding Technique used in analytical photogrammetry for reducing mensuration requirements on a photographic plate by segregating images into annular zones defined by specific bands subtended, usually by 5 of arc. Areas read are then only in certain outer bands depending on the calibration of the lens cone. HDBK-850
conference (As referred to in Multipoint Multimedia Communications) A group of geographically dispersed nodes that are joined together and that are capable of exchanging audiographic and audiovisual information across various communication networks. Multimedia
conferencing A generic term that refers to an application's ability to allow users to share the same file or bulletin board in real-time (synchronous), or at different times in a store-and-forward (asynchronous) manner. Multimedia
confidence The metaquality element describing the correctness of quality information. For quality measures, confidence will be given statistical indicators such as standard error or confidence interval for a given degree of confidence. On other information, confidence will be reported by an explanatory text. CEN/TC 287
confidence interval A statement of accuracy based on a statistic whose distribution function is known; e.g., the normal distribution function or bivariate normal distribution function. Errors are stated as some percentage of the total probability of 100 percent; e.g., a 90 percent assurance level. Also called assurance level; error interval; probability interval. HDBK-850
confidentiality The property that ensures information is not made available or disclosed to unauthorized individuals, entities, or processes. [DISA/D2] DISA CFS
configuration baseline Configuration documentation formally designated by the Government at a specific time during a CI's life cycle. Configuration baselines, plus approved changes from those baselines, constitute the current approved configuration documentation. There are three formally designated configuration baselines in the life cycle of a configuration item, namely the functional, allocated, a product baselines. [MIL-STD-973] DISA CFS
configuration control The systematic proposal, justification, evaluation, coordination, approval or disapproval of proposed changes, and the implementation of all approved changes, in the configuration of a CI after establishment of the configuration baseline(s) for the CI. [MIL-STD-973] DISA CFS
Configuration Control Board (CCB) A board composed of technical and administrative representatives who recommend approval or disapproval of proposed engineering changes to a CI's current approved configuration documentation. The board also recommends approval or disapproval of proposed waivers and deviations from a CI's current approved configuration documentation. [MIL-STD-973] DISA CFS
Configuration Control Board (CCB) {DII COE} The organization responsible for authorizing enhancements, corrections, and revisions to the COE, or to a COE-based system. CCBs exist for the purpose of controlling changes made to a system. DISA chairs the CCB for the DII COE and for its own systems (e.g., GCCS, GCSS, ECPN). Other services and agencies may use the same approach for controlling changes to their COE-derived systems. DII COE IRTS
Configuration Definition {DII COE} A hierarchical representation of a collection of segments that are to be installed. Configuration definitions are organized into distributions, folders, configurations, bundles, and segments. The purpose of configuration definitions is to allow pre-definition of the segments that are to be installed at a site broken down into whatever groups are meaningful to the site (e.g., workspace, platform usage). DII COE IRTS
configuration documentation The technical documentation that identifies and defines the item's functional physical characteristics. The configuration documentation is developed, approved, and maintained through three distinct evolutionary increasing levels of detail. Three levels of configuration documentation are the functional configuration documentation, the allocated configuration documentation, and the product configuration documentation. [MIL-STD-973] DISA CFS
configuration item (CI) A configuration item is an aggregation of hardware or software that satisfies an end use function and is designated by the Government for separate configuration management. [MIL-STD-973] DISA CFS
configuration management (CM) As applied to configuration items, a discipline applying technical and administrative direction and surveillance over the life cycle of items to: (1) Identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of configuration items. (2) Control changes to configuration items and their related documentation. (3) Record and report information needed to manage configuration items effectively, including the status of proposed changes and implementation status of approved changes. (4) Audit configuration items to verify conformance to specifications, drawings, interface control documents, and other contract requirements. [MIL-STD-973] DISA CFS
configuration of objects A collection of objects able to interact at interfaces. A configuration determines the set of objects involved in each interaction. The concept of interface and the related concept of interaction are defined terms. From these definitions, the concept of configuration can be seen to encompass not just a collection of objects, but also the way in which those objects are able to interact. RM-ODP
configuration of terrain See topographic expression. HDBK-850
Configuration Status Accounting (CSA) The recording and reporting of information needed to manage configuration items effectively, including: a. A record of the approved configuration documentation and identification numbers. B. The status of proposed changes, deviations, and waivers to the configuration. C. The implementation status of approved changes. D. The configuration of all units of the configuration item in the operational inventory. [MIL-STD-973] DISA CFS
conformal chart A chart on a conformal projection. HDBK-850
conformal map projection A map projection on which the shape of any small area of the surface mapped is preserved unchanged, and all angles around any point are correctly represented. Also called orthomorphic map projection. HDBK-850
conformance A statement of conformance to a POSIX standard is based on a completed test of the target system using POSIX.3 conforming test methods, where for each POSIX.3 assertion for that standard, there is a correctly assigned test result code. (IEEE Std. 1003.3-1991) ITSG Vol. 1
conformance Meeting standards. By running standard test scripts, conformance testing ensures that a product meets standards. TAFIM 3.0
conformance assessment process Tthe process of accomplishing the conformance testing activities necessary to determine the conformance of an implementation to an application protocol ISO/TC 211
conformance documentation A formal record of the testing of a product for conformance to a particular standard. (IEEE Std. P1003.1-1990) ITSG Vol. 1
conformance point In a specification, a conformance point corresponds to an architectural reference point. A conformance point is where behavior may be observed for the purposes of conformance testing. RM-ODP
conformance test report A document written at the end of the conformance assessment process, that provides the overall summary of the conformance of the IUT to the standard for which conformance testing was carried out, and that gives the details of the testing. ISO/TC 211
conformance testing The testing of a candidate product for the existence of specific characteristics required by a standard in order to determine the extent to which that product is a conforming implementation. ISO/TC 211
conforming implementation An implementation which satisfies the conformance requirements, consistent with the capabilities stated in the specified statement. ISO/TC 211
conic chart A chart on a conic projection. HDBK-850
conic chart with two standard parallels A chart on the conic projection with two standard parallels. Also called secant conic chart. HDBK-850
conic map projection A map projection produced by projecting the geographic meridians and parallels onto a cone which is tangent to (or intersects) the surface of a sphere, and then developing the cone into a plane. Conic map projections may be considered as including cylindrical map projection when the apex of the cone is at an infinite distance from the sphere, and projections on a tangent plane when that distance is zero. Conic map projections may be illustrated with a single cone which is tangent to the sphere or which cuts the sphere along two parallels; or they may be a series of tangent cones, all with apexes on an extension of the axis of the sphere, at constantly increasing (or decreasing) distances from the sphere. It is best used to show areas of large longitudinal rather than latitudinal distances. Also called tangent conical map projection. HDBK-850
conic map projection with two standard parallels A conic map projection in which the surface of a sphere or spheroid, such as the Earth, is conceived as developed on a cone which intersects the sphere or spheroid along two standard parallels. The Lambert conformal projection is an example. Also called secant conic map projections. HDBK-850
conjugate distances The corresponding distances of object and image from the nodal points of the lens. HDBK-850
conjugate image points See corresponding image points. HDBK-850
conjugate image rays See corresponding image rays. HDBK-850
conjugate points The object and image points in an optical system. They are physically related according to the definition for conjugate distances. HDBK-850
conjunction The situation of two celestial bodies having the same celestial longitude or the same sidereal hour angle. See also inferior conjunction; opposition; superior conjunction. HDBK-850
connected node A node related to one or more edges. ISO/TC 211
connected node One of the two node primitive types. It is used to represent linked features that are zero dimentional at a particular scale. Connected nodes are always found at the ends of edges and are topologically linked to the edges. Connected nodes are used in two ways: (1) to define edges topologically (always) and (2) to represent point features that are found at a juncture of linear features, such as overpasses, locks in a canal, or underground utility access points. Under the first usage, the connected nodes are referred to as start and end nodes. Under the second usage, attributes will be associated with the point features related to the connected nodes. If many edges intersect a node, only one edge will be maintained per node in the connected node table; other edges are linked by using winged-edge topology. All connected nodes which lie on a tile boundary will have cross-tile components (tile_id and first_edge). VPF Glossary
connecting traverse A traverse which starts and ends at separate points whose relative positions have been determined by a survey of an equal- or higher-order of accuracy. Considered less subject to undetected error than a loop traverse. HDBK-850
connection (geodesy) The systematic elimination of discrepancies between adjoining or overlapping triangulation networks for the purpose of establishing a common framework from which long-range measurements can betaken. HDBK-850
connection In data communications terminology, a logical link established between application processes that enables them to exchange information. In the OSI Reference Model, an association established by one layer with two or more entities of the next higher layer for the transfer of data. In TCP/IP, it is a logical TCP communication path identified by a pair of sockets, one for each side of the path. TAFIM 3.0
connection relationship See relationship, connection. USIGS/CDM-A
connectivity A topological property relating to how geographical features are attached to one another functionally, spatially, or logically. In an water distribution system, connectivity would refer to the way pipes, valves, and reservoirs are attached, implying that water could be "traced" from its source in the network, from connection to connection, to any given final point. Functional, spatial, and logical connectivity are examples of relationships that can be represented and analyzed in a GIS database. OpenGIS Guide
connectivity analysis 1. Analytical technique to determine whether a set of points (nodes) or lines are connected to each other. 2. (GIS) Function used to predict or track routings through a network. HDBK-850
Connectivity Service {DoD TRM} A service area of the External Environment entity of the Technical Reference Model that provides end-to-end connectivity for communications through three transport levels (global, regional, and local). It provides general and applications-specific services to platform end devices. TAFIM 3.0
consecutive mean A smoothed representation of a time series derived by replacing each observed value with a mean value computed over a selected interval. Consecutive means are used in smoothing to eliminate unwanted periodicities or minimize irregular variations. Also called moving average; overlapping mean; running mean. HDBK-850
Consol (JCS) A long-range radio aid to navigation, the emissions of which, by means of their radio frequency modulation characteristics, enable bearings to be determined. HDBK-850
Consol chart A chart showing Consol lines of position. HDBK-850
consortia (standards) Standards developed by industry associations, consortia, and other public bodies not recognized as formal standards bodies. ITSG Vol. 1
constant error A systematic error which is the same in both magnitude and sign throughout a given series of observations, such as an index error of an instrument. See also accumulative error. HDBK-850
constant of aberration The maximum aberration of a star observed from the surface of the Earth, 20.496 seconds of arc. HDBK-850
constant of gravitation The proportionality factor (equal to 6.67 X 10-5 m3 kg1 sec-2) in the universal law of gravitation; i.e., every particle of matter attracts every other particle with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of their distance apart. Also called gravitational constant; law of universal gravitation. HDBK-850
constant pressure chart See isobaric chart. HDBK-850
constellation An orbital group of satellites, e.g., the Global Positioning System(GPS). HDBK-850
constituent One of the harmonic elements in a mathematical expression for the tide-producing force and in the corresponding formulas for the tide or tidal current. Each constituent represents a periodic change or variation in the relative positions of the Earth, Moon, and Sun. Also called astronomic tidal constituent; harmonic constituent; partial tide; tidal constituent. See also component; diurnal constituent; semidiurnal constituent. HDBK-850
constituent day The duration of the Earth's daily rotation relative to a fictitious star which represents one of the periodic tide-producing forces; it approximates the length of the lunar or solar day and corresponds to the period of a diurnal constituent of twice the period of a semidiurnal constituent. The term is not applicable to the long-period constituents. HDBK-850
constrained adaptive dynamic range adjustment An adjustment to the gray levels of digital imagery. USIS 95
consumer An individual or organization that uses imagery and imagery products directly without responsibility for producing a product for another individual or organization. USIS 95
contact base-line measuring apparatus A base apparatus composed of bars whose lengths are defined by the distance between their end faces or points. In use, the bars are laid end to end, one bar being kept in position while another bar is being moved ahead. HDBK-850
contact glass See focal plane plate. HDBK-850
contact plate See focal plane plate. HDBK-850
contact print (JCS) A print made from a negative or a diapositive in direct contact with sensitized material. HDBK-850
contact printer A device which provides a light source and a means for holding the negative and the sensitive material in contact during exposure. Also, a specialized device for exposing diapositive plates at the same scale as that of the negative. HDBK-850
contact printing frame In photography and platemaking, a device for holding the negative and the sensitive material in contact during exposure. The light source may or may not be a separate element. If the frame contains a vacuum pump to exhaust all air within the frame to insure perfect contact between the negative and the sensitive material, it is known as a contact vacuum printing frame. HDBK-850
contact screen 1. A halftone screen made on a film base and used in direct contact with the film to obtain a halftone image from a continuous tone original. 2. A pattern image on a film base contact with an open window negative to obtain a pattern image on film or plate. See also area pattern screen; magenta contact screen. HDBK-850
contact size In reproduction, printing to the same size as the original. Also called one-to-one (1:1) copy. See aIso scale of reproduction. HDBK-850
contact slide base-line measuring apparatus A modified contact base-line measuring apparatus consisting of two steel measuring bars (rods), each 4 meters in length, so mounted that contact is effected by coincidence of lines on a rod and a contact slide. Each rod forms a metallic thermometer with two zinc tubes, one on each side of the bar; opposite ends of the bar are fastened to the ends of the tubes, the other ends of which are free to move with changes of temperature. HDBK-850
contact vacuum printing frame See contact printing frame. HDBK-850
contact vernier The usual type of vernier, having the vernier scale and the graduated circle in physical contact. HDBK-850
context object A collection of name-value pairs that provides environmental or user-preference information. See Chapter 4. CORBA 2.2
context-sensitive Computer action or response directly related to the cursor position or specific point in the software, for example, a help function that displays information about the specific data entry field in which the cursor was located when help was called. [HCI Style Guide] DISA CFS
contiguity analysis An analytical technique to determine whether a set of areas (polygons) are situated next to each other. Sometimes referred to as adjacency analysis. HDBK-850
contiguous area coverage A condition in which individual image products, required to encompass the entire target area of interest, are collected with sufficient overlap and without significant differences in perspective. Contiguous area coverage allows the logical presentation of imagery over the entire area of interest and permits the preparation of controlled and uncontrolled mosaics and related products. USIS 95
continental control network (CCN) An accurate network of control points established over a large geographic area. HDBK-850
Continental United States (CONUS) The 48 contiguous states. USIS 95
Contingency Airborne Reconnaissance System (CARS) Part of the U-2R ground station. This is the transportable replacement for the Tactical Reconnaissance System Ground Stations (TRIGS). USIS 95
Contingency National Military Joint Intelligence Center The concept organization to support National Military Joint Intelligence Center (NMJIC) functions during a crisis. USIS 95
contingency plan A plan for major contingencies that can reasonably be anticipated in the principal geographic subareas of the Command. USIS 95
Contingency Planning Facilities List Program A joint Defense Intelligence agency/unified and specified command program for the production and maintenance of current target documentation of all countries of contingency planning interest to U.S. military planners. USIS 95
continuous coverage The ability to monitor or observe an entire sequence of events. USIS 95
continuous processor (JCS) Equipment which processes film or paper in continuous strips. HDBK-850
continuous strip camera (JCS) A camera in which the film moves continuously past a slit in the focal plane, producing a photograph in one unbroken length by virtue of the continuous forward motion of the aircraft. HDBK-850
continuous strip imagery Imagery of a strip of terrain in which the image remains unbroken throughout its length, along the line of flight. USIS 95
continuous strip photography (JCS) Photography of a strip of terrain in which the image remains unbroken throughout its length along the line of flight. HDBK-850
continuous tone An image which has not been screened and contains unbroken, gradient tones from black to white, and may be either in negative or positive form. Aerial photographs are examples of continuous tone prints. See also halftone; line copy. HDBK-850
continuous tone gray scale A scale of tones from white to black or from transparent to opaque, each tone of which blends imperceptibly into the next without visible texture or dot formation. Also called continuous wedge. See also step wedge. HDBK-850
continuous wave Electromagnetic waves generated as a continuous train of identical oscillations. They can be interrupted according to a code, or modulated in amplitude, frequency, or phase in order to convey information. USIS 95
continuous wedge See continuous tone gray scale. HDBK-850
contour An imaginary line on the ground, all points of which are at the same elevation above or below a specified datum surface, usually mean sea level. HDBK-850
contour finder A stereomapping instrument of simple design for use with photographic prints. This instrument does not provide a method of compensating for scale changes in different parts of the model resulting from differences in relief. HDBK-850
contour interval (JCS) Difference in elevation between two adjacent contour lines. [Occasionally, the interval may vary within an individual sheet.] See also variable contour interval. HDBK-850
contour line (JCS) A line on a map or chart connecting points of equal elevation. See also accurate contour; approximate contour; carrying contour; depression contour; depth contour; form lines; geoidal contour; index contour line; intermediate contour line; sea level contour; supplementary contour. HDBK-850
contour map A topographic map which portrays relief by the use of contour lines. HDBK-850
contour sketching Freehand delineation of the surface relief on a map as seen in perspective view, but controlled by locations on the map corresponding to salient points on the ground. HDBK-850
contour value A numerical value placed upon a contour line to denote its elevation relative to a given datum, usually mean sea level. HDBK-850
contract An agreement governing part of the collective behavior of a set of objects. A contract specifies obligations, permissions and prohibitions for the objects involved. The specifications of a contract may include: a specification of the different roles that objects involved in the contract may assume, the interfaces associated with the roles; Quality of Service (QoS) attributes; Quality of Protection (QoP) attributes; indications of duration or periods of validity; indications of behavior which invalidates the contract; (preconditions, postconditions, invariants) live-ness and safety conditions. RM-ODP
contractual context The knowledge that a particular contract is in place, and that a particular behavior of a set of objects is required. An object may be in a number of contractual contexts simultaneously; the behavior of that object is constrained by the intersection of the contractual agreements. RM-ODP
contrast (photography) The actual difference in density between the highlights and the shadows on a negative or positive. Contrast is not concerned with the magnitude of density, but only with the difference in densities. Also, the rating of a photographic material corresponding to the relative density difference which it exhibits. See also characteristic curve; density, definition 1. HDBK-850
contrast stretching Improving the contrast of images by digital processing. The original range of digital values is expanded to utilize the full contrast range of the recording medium or display device. The operation increases or decreases the contrast attributes of an image in order to bring out definition not clearly visible in the original. USIS 95
control 1. Previously established positions and/or orientation data used for determining additional position data used for discrete topographic points, or for controlling cartographic representations to the specified datum. 2. A collective term for a system of marks or objects on the Earth or on a map or a photograph, whose positions or elevation, or both, have been or will be determined. See also astronomic control; basic control; common control; electronic control; geodetic control; ground control; horizontal control; La place control; level control; photogrammetric control; recover; starting control; supplemental control; vertical control. HDBK-850
control base A surface upon which the map projection and ground control are plotted and upon which templates have been assembled or aerotriangulation has been accomplished and the control points thus determined have been marked. HDBK-850
control board An impartial body possessing the necessary competence and reliability to approve and maintain proficient test suites for the testing programme, and in which the interests of all parties concerned with the function of the tests are represented. ISO/TC 211
control data card A card containing positional data and descriptions of individual horizontal and/or vertical control points. Also called geodetic data sheet. See also trig list. HDBK-850
control flight See control strip. HDBK-850
control marking A note or other form of caveat shown on an MC&G product indicating a need for special handling and for controlled dissemination. HDBK-850
control net See survey net. HDBK-850
control point 1. Any station of known coordinates in a horizontal or vertical control network that is identified in a data set or photograph and used for correlating the other station data The term is usually modified to reflect the type or purpose, such as ground control point, horizontal control point, photocontrol point, picture control point, and vertical control point. See also control station; secondary control point; supplemental control point. 2. (JCS) A point located by ground survey with which a corresponding point on a photograph is matched, as a check, in making mosaics. HDBK-850
control point photography Electronically controlled aerial photography consisting of four flight lines flown in a cloverleaf pattern from the four cardinal directions and with the flights intersecting over a target or secondary control point. HDBK-850
control station An object or mark on the ground of known position or elevation, or both, in a network of ground control. Control stations constitute the framework by which map details are fixed in their correct position, azimuth, elevation, and scale with respect to the Earth's surface. Also called ground control point. See also control point. HDBK-850
control strip (aerial photography) A strip of aerial photographs taken to aid in planning and accomplishing later aerial photography, or to serve as control in assembling other strips. Also called control flight; tie flight; tie strip. See also cross-flight photography. HDBK-850
control survey A survey which provides positions (horizontal and vertical) of points to which supplementary surveys are adjusted. The fundamental control survey of the United States provides the geographic positions and plane coordinates of triangulation and traverse stations and the elevations of bench marks which are used as the bases for hydrographic surveys of the coastal waters, for the control of the topographic survey of the United States, and for the control of many state, city, and private surveys. HDBK-850
control survey classification A series of designations to classify control surveys according to their field survey methods and accuracy. The highest prescribed order of control surveys is designated first order; the next lower prescribed classification, second order; etc. HDBK-850
Controlled Image Base (CIB) ® CIB® is an unclassified seamless dataset of orthophotos, made from rectified grayscale aerial images. CIB® supports various weapons, C3I theater battle management, mission planning, digital moving map, terrain analysis, simulation, and intelligence systems. CIB® data are produced from digital source images that are converted to meet the requirements of this CIB® specification at one of the registered resolutions defined in MIL-STD-2411-1. CIB® data are derived directly from digital images and are compressed and reformatted to conform to the Raster Product Format (RPF) Standard. CIB® files are physically formatted within the National Imagery Transmission Format (NITF) message. The CIB® product conforms to MIL-STD-2411. CIB® is produced directly from source images and formatted into a CIB® frame file structure. The CIB® may be derived from a grayscale image, from one band of a multispectral product, or from an arithmetic combination of several multispectral bands. NIMA LOP
controlled map (JCS) A map with precise horizontal and vertical ground control as a basis. Scale, azimuth, and elevations are accurate. See also map. HDBK-850
controlled mosaic (JCS) A mosaic corrected for scale, rectified, and laid to ground control to provide an accurate representation of distances and direction. See also mosaic; semicontrolled mosaic; uncontrolled mosaic. HDBK-850
controlling depth The least depth in the approach or channel to an area, such as a port or anchorage, governing the maximum draft of craft that can enter. HDBK-850
control-station identification See photoidentification. HDBK-850
conventional international origin (CIO) The average terrestrial pole of the period 1900 to 1905. Often used as the origin to which the coordinates of the instantaneous pole of rotation of the Earth are referred. In 1967, the IUGG recommended that the CIO be used to define the direction of the geodetic north pole. Abbreviated to OIC in French publications. See also average terrestrial pole. HDBK-850
Conventional Terrestrial Reference System (CTS) A geocentric cartesian datum defined and maintained by the International Earth Rotation Service. CEN/TC 287
convergence angle The angle, measured at the target, between the imaging satellite's line of sight to the fore and aft images of a stereo pair. Convergence angle is measured in the slant plane that contains the fore and aft line of sight vectors. USIS 95
convergence constant The angle at a given latitude between meridians 1 apart. Sometimes loosely called convergency, a term which more properly is the equivalent of convergence. HDBK-850
convergence of meridians The angular drawing together of the geographic meridians in passing from the Equator to the poles. At the Equator, all meridians are mutually parallel; passing from the Equator, they converge until they meet at the poles, intersecting at angles that are equal to their differences of longitude. The term convergence of meridians is used to designate also the relative difference of direction of meridians at specific points on the meridians. Thus, for a geodetic line, the azimuth at one end differs from the azimuth at the other end by 180 plus or minus the amount of the convergence of the meridians at the end points. HDBK-850
convergent camera An assembly of two aerial cameras which take simultaneous photographs and maintain a fixed angle between their optical axes. The effect is to increase the angular coverage in one direction, along the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. HDBK-850
convergent model datum See model datum. HDBK-850
convergent photography Photography taken with a convergent camera. In photogrammetry, the angle of convergence of the two lenses axes is usually 40 maintaining a 1:1 base-height ratio. HDBK-850
convergent position A split camera installation so positioned that the plane containing the camera axis is parallel to the line of flight. HDBK-850
converging lens See positive lens. HDBK-850
conversion The changing of one system of measurement to another; e.g., converting meters to feet. Conversion is usually accomplished by the use of conversion factors, scales, and tables. HDBK-850
conversion The process of transferring data derived from existing records and maps to a digital database. Conversion is a major input problem and can consume the greatest share of time in a GIS project. OpenGIS Guide
conversion angle (JCS) The angle between a great-circle (orthodromic) bearing and a rhumb line (loxodromic) bearing of a point, measured at a common origin. HDBK-850
conversion factor A quantity by which the numerical value in one system of units must be multiplied to arrive at the numerical value in another system of units. HDBK-850
conversion scale (JCS) A scale indicating the relationship between two different units of measurement (e.g., meters to feet). See also scale. HDBK-850
convertible lens A lens containing two or more elements which can be used individually or in combination. HDBK-850
convex lens See positive lens. HDBK-850
convolution A process consisting of multiplication and addition that involves the spatial filter elements ( an n X n mask, e.g., a 3 X 3, 5 X 5 mask) and the image data used for edge enhancement. USIS 95
cooperative mapping agreement A formal agreement between national governments specifying responsibilities for MC&G activities such as procurement of aerial photography, execution of geodetic control surveys, and production of maps, charts, and related products. See also map exchange agreement. HDBK-850
coordinate axes In a rectangular coordinate system, the axes of reference which intersect at right angles at the point of origin. HDBK-850
coordinate based position information An ordered set of numbers which expresses the position of a point in terms of a geodetic datum. EXAMPLE: (X,Y,Z), (f,l,h), (E,N) . CEN/TC 287
coordinate conversion Changing the coordinate values from one type to those of another with the coordinate reference systems or datums not changing; e.g., geographic coordinates to Transverse Mercator grid coordinates. HDBK-850
coordinate pair A set of cartesian coordinates describing the two-dimensional location of a point, line, or areas (polygon) feature in relation to the common coordinate systems of the data base. HDBK-850
coordinate protractor A square-shaped protractor having graduations on two adjacent edges with the center at one corner. It is equipped with a movable arm turning about the center, and graduated to show linear quantities on a given scale. The protractor is covered with a grid of the same scale and units as the arm. HDBK-850
coordinate reference notation Grid coordinates are given in terms of linear measurement, usually meters but occasionally in yards, feet, or other units. Geographic coordinates are given in terms of angular measurement, usually in degrees, minutes, and seconds, but occasionally in grads. HDBK-850
coordinate system (UCDM Entity: "COORDINATE-SYSTEM") A system of spatial measurement. USIGS/CDM-A
coordinate transformation 1. A mathematical or graphic process of obtaining a modified set of coordinates by some combination of rotation of coordinate axes at their point of origin, translocation of the point of origin, modification of scale along coordinate axes, or change of the size or geometry of the reference space. 2. The set of parameters used to accomplish this process. See also affine transformation; Cartesian coordinates; datum transformation; rectification; Universal Polar Stereographic grid; Universal Transverse Mercator grid. HDBK-850
coordinate tuple A coordinate pair or triplet. VPF Glossary
coordinated series A series of geographically integrated target charts and other graphics of a uniform scale and format developed to provide continuous and complete coverage of a large area. Also called series. HDBK-850
Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) (DOD) An atomic time scale that is the basis for broadcast time signals. UTC differs from International Atomic Time by an integral number of seconds; it is maintained within 0.9 seconds of Universal Time (UT1) by introduction of Leap Seconds. The rotational orientation of the Earth, specified by UT1, may be obtained to an accuracy of a tenth of a second by applying the UTC to the increment DUT1(where DUT1=UT1-UTC) that is broadcast in code with the time signals. See also International Atomic Time (TAI); Leap Second; Universal Time (UT1). JPUB 1-02
coordinates (JCS) Linear or angular quantities which designate the position that a point occupies in a given reference frame or system. Also used as a general term to designate the particular kind of reference frame or system, such as plane rectangular coordinates or spherical coordinates. See also assumed plane coordinates; astronomic coordinates; Cartesian coordinates; celestial equator system of coordinates; chromaticity coordinates: curvilinear coordinates; cylindrical coordinates; Earth-fixed coordinate system; ecliptic system of coordinates; galactic system of coordinates; geocentric coordinates; geocentric geodetic coordinates; geodetic coordinates; geographic coordinates; geomagnetic coordinates; grid coordinates; grid coordinate system; ground-space coordinate system; horizon system of coordinates; hour angle system (of coordinates); inertial coordinate system; local coordinate system; model coordinates; oblique coordinates; origin of coordinates; photograph coordinates; plane polar coordinates; plane rectangular coordinates; plate coordinates; polar coordinates; rectangular coordinates; rectangular space coordinates; relative coordinate system; right ascension system; selenocentric coordinates; space coordinates; space polar coordinates; spherical coordinates; state coordinate systems; strip coordinates; topocentric coordinates; topocentric equatorial coordinates; universal space rectangular coordinate system; Universal Transverse Mercator coordinates; vertical coordinates. HDBK-850
coordination The process of having standardization documents reviewed and commented upon by government and private sector organizations. [DOD 4120.3-M] DISA CFS
coordination (surveying) The placing of all survey data on the same coordinate system or datum. Coordination does not imply the adjustment of observations to remove discrepancies. Two field surveys over the same area may be coordinated by computation on the same datum, but there may remain between them discrepancies that can be removed only by correlation. HDBK-850
coordinatograph An instrument used to plot in terms of plane coordinates. It may be an integral part of a stereoscopic plotting instrument whereby the planimetric motions (x and y) of the floating mark are plotted directly. Also called rectangular coordinate plotter. HDBK-850
coplanar Lying in the same plane. HDBK-850
copy The manuscript or text furnished for reproduction. See also continuous tone; line copy; tone copy. HDBK-850
copy (copying) camera A precision camera used in the laboratory for copying purposes. Also called process camera. HDBK-850
corange line A line through points of equal tidal range. HDBK-850
Coriolis A fictitious force used to explain the horizontal departure from a straight line of a moving object on or near the Earth's surface caused by viewing the trajectory of the moving object while the observer is stationary with respect to the rotating Earth. This "force" causes deflections to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere Coriolis deflects objects to the west if they are moving toward the Equator and to the east if they are moving away from the Equator. It affects air (wind) and water (current), and introduces an error in the bubble sextant observations made from a moving craft; the effect increasing with higher latitude and greater speed of the object. Also called Coriolis Force; deflecting force. HDBK-850
Coriolis correction A correction applied to an assumed position, celestial line of position, celestial fix, or to a computed or observed altitude to allow for apparent acceleration due to Coriolis force. HDBK-850
Coriolis force See Coriolis. HDBK-850
corner 1. A point on a land boundary, at which two or more boundary lines meet. 2. A point on the surface of the Earth, determined by the surveying process, which defines an extremity on a boundary of the public lands. See also auxiliary meander corner; closing corner; closing township corner; double corners; existent corner; found corner; indicated corner; lost corner; meander corner; obliterated corner; quarter section corner; quarter-quarter section corner; section corner; sixteenth section corner; special meander corner; standard corner; theoretical corner; township corner; witness corner. HDBK-850
corner accessories Nearby physical objects to which corners are referenced for their future identification or restoration. Accessories include bearing trees, mounds, pits, ledges, rocks, and other natural features, to which distances or directions (or both) from the corner or monument are known. Such accessories are actually a part of the monumentation. See also bearing tree. HDBK-850
corner joins The location where three or more contiguous map sheets come together. HDBK-850
corner marks See register marks. HDBK-850
corner ticks See register marks. HDBK-850
Corporate Functional Integration Board (CFIB) Functional Activity Program Manager level forum for identifying and resolving Department-wide issues arising from accelerated process reengineering, data standardization and sharing, and migration system implementation. The CFIB reports to the EICMC. [DISA/D7] DISA CFS
Corporate Information Management (CIM) A strategic collaborative management initiative to improve the performance of the DOD and capture the benefits of the information revolution. [DISA/D7] DISA CFS
corrected establishment The mean high water interval for all stages of the tide. HDBK-850
correction A quantity, equal in absolute magnitude but opposite in sign to the error, added to a calculated or observed value to obtain the true or adjusted value. See also arc correction; augmentation correction; Bouguer correction; clock correction; Coriolis correction; curvature correction; dynamic correction; dynamic temperature correction; eccentric reduction; Eötvös correction; field correction; free-air correction; grade correction; height-of-eye correction; index correction; ionospheric correction; latitude correction; length correction; level correction; orthometric correction; Polaris correction; rod correction; sag correction; semidiameter correction; slope correction; surface corrections; tape corrections; temperature correction; tension correction; terrain correction; tidal correction; timing correction; transit micrometer contact correction; velocity correction. HDBK-850
correction code A code consisting of letters, numbers, and symbols which are used to indicate edit corrections on maps or on overlays attached thereto. HDBK-850
correction for datum A conversion factor used in the prediction of tides to resolve the difference between chart datum of the reference and a secondary station. HDBK-850
correction for inclination of tape See grade correction. HDBK-850
correction for inclination of the horizontal axis A correction applied to an observed horizontal direction to eliminate any error that may have been caused by the horizontal axis of the instrument not being exactly horizontal. HDBK-850
correction for run of micrometer A correction applied to an observed reading of a graduated circle made with a micrometer microscope to compensate for run of micrometer. HDBK-850
correction line See standard parallel, definition 1. HDBK-850
correction notices A variety of notices (e.g., Notice to Mariners, Notice to Airmen, errata notices, chart update manuals, target material bulletins, etc.) utilized to transmit correction data which the user applies to an existing MC&G product. HDBK-850
correction overlay A transparent material on which edit corrections are noted. The method permits an immediate location of features to be revised without the necessity of marking the drawing or map. HDBK-850
correlate equation An equation derived from an observation or condition equation, using undetermined multipliers, and expressing the condition that the sum of the squares of the residuals (or corrections) resulting from the application of these multipliers to the observation or condition equations shall be a minimum See also condition equation; normal equation. HDBK-850
correlation 1. (general) The statistical interdependence between two quantities (e.g., in geodesy, gravity anomalies are correlated with other gravity anomalies, with elevation, with elevation differences, and with geology, etc.). 2. (surveying) The removal of discrepancies that exist among survey data so that all parts are interrelated without apparent error. The terms coordination and correlation are usually applied to the harmonizing of surveys of adjacent areas or of different surveys over the same area. Two or more such surveys are coordinated when they are computed on the same datum; they are correlated when they are adjusted together. HDBK-850
Correlation Tracking and Triangulation (COTAT) A trajectory measuring system composed of several antenna base lines, each separated by large distances, used to measure direction cosines to an object. From these measurements its space position is computed by triangulation. HDBK-850
correspondence (stereoscopy) The cond-ition that exists when corresponding images on a pair of photographs lie in the same epipolar plane; the absence of y-parallax. HDBK-850
corresponding image points The images on two or more overlapping photographs of a single object point. Sometimes incorrectly called conjugate image points. HDBK-850
corresponding image rays Rays con-necting each of a set of corresponding image points with its particular perspective center. HDBK-850
corresponding images A point or line in one system of points or lines homologous to a point or line in another system. Sometimes incorrectly called conjugate points. HDBK-850
Cost Analysis Improvement Group (CAIG) The CAIG, chaired by the Deputy Director, Resource Analysis, PA&E, conducts reviews of DoD Component cost estimates and prepares the independent cost estimate (DoDD 5000.4 (reference (aa)). DoDD 5000.1
Cost and Operational Effectiveness Analysis (COEA) A documented investigation of: (1) Comparative effectiveness of alternative means of meeting a requirement for eliminating or reducing a force or mission deficiency. (2) The validity of the requirement in a scenario which has the approval of HQDA and HQ, TRADOC. (3) The cost of developing, producing, distributing, and sustaining each alternative in the military environment for a time preceding the combat application. (4) The analysis is updated by the combat developer at each major decision point to include the use of the DT/OT data. [JITC Dictionary] DISA CFS
cotidal chart A chart of cotidal lines that show approximate locations of high water at hourly intervals measured from a reference meridian, usually Greenwich. HDBK-850
cotidal hour The average interval expressed in solar or lunar hours between the Moon's passage over the meridian of Greenwich and the following high water at a specified place. HDBK-850
cotidal line A line on a chart passing through all points where high water occurs at the same time. The lines show the lapse of time, usually in lunar hour intervals, between the Moon's transit over a reference meridian (usually Greenwich) and the occurrence of high water for any point lying along the line. HDBK-850
counterclockwise angle A horizontal angle measured in a counterclockwise direction; used primarily for the measurement of deflection angles. HDBK-850
counterdrug (CD) (DOD) Those active measures taken to detect, monitor, and counter the production, trafficking, and use of illegal drugs. [Also referred to as counternarcotics.] JPUB 1-02
counter-etch To remove, with certain diluted acids, impurities from a lithographic plate, making it receptive to an image. HDBK-850
counterintelligence (CI) (DOD) Information gathered and activities conducted to protect against espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted by or on behalf of foreign governments or elements thereof, foreign organizations, or foreign persons, or international terrorist activities. JPUB 1-02
counternarcotics See counterdrug (CD). JPUB 1-02
counterterrorism (CT) (DOD) Offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism. JPUB 1-02
county map A map of the area of a county as a unit. HDBK-850
courier A messenger (usually a commissioned or warrant officer) responsible for the secure physical transmission and delivery of documents and material. Generally referred to as a command or local courier. A person designated by the government to transport classified materials. USIS 95
course 1. (land surveying) The bearing of a line; also the bearing and length of a line. 2. (traverse) The azimuth and length of a line, considered together. 3. (navigation) The azimuth or bearing of a line along which a ship or aircraft is to travel or does travel, without change of direction; the line drawn on a chart or map as the intended track. The direction of a course is always measured in degrees from the true meridian, and the true course is always meant unless it is otherwise qualified; e.g., as a magnetic or compass course. See also track. 4. (geography) A route on the Earth along which a river flows; the river itself. HDBK-850
course of action 1. A plan that would accomplish, or is related to, the accomplishment of a mission. 2. The scheme adopted to accomplish a task or mission. It is a product of the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System concept development phase. The supported commander will include a recommended course of action in the commander's estimate. The recommended course of action will include the concept of operations, evaluation of supportability estimates of supporting organizations, and an integrated time phased data base of combat, combat support, and combat service support forces and sustainment. Refinement of this data base will be contingent on the time available for course of action development. When approved, the course of action becomes the basis for the development of an operation plan or operation order USIS 95
covariance A mathematical quantity sxy related to the coefficient of correlation rxy between two variables sxy = rxy sxsy, where s2x and s2y are the variances of x and y, respectively. Used in the variance-covariance matrix of a least squares solution. HDBK-850
cover (JCS) Photographs or other recorded images which show a particular area of ground. See also basic cover; comparative cover. HDBK-850
cover search (JCS) In air photographic reconnaissance, the process of selection of the most suitable existing cover for a specific requirement. HDBK-850
cover trace (JCS) (reconnaissance) One of a series of overlays showing all air reconnaissance sorties covering the map sheet to which the overlays refer. HDBK-850
coverage An indicator showing the completeness of a dataset for an areal unit. CEN/TC 287
coverage (JCS) The ground area represented on imagery, photomaps, mosaics, maps, and other geographical presentation systems. HDBK-850
coverage 1. GIS coverages (including the special case of Earth images) are two- (and sometimes higher-) dimentional metaphors for phenomena found on or near a portion of the Earth's surface. Fundamentally, coverages (and images) provide humans with an n-dimentional (where n is usually 2, and occationally 3 or higher) "view" of some (usually more complex) space of geographic features. The power of coverages is their ability to model and make visible spatial relationships between, and the spatial distribution of, Earth phenomena. 2. A coverage is a special case of (or a subtype of) feature. OpenGIS Topic 6
coverage index One of a series of overlays showing all photographic reconnaissance missions covering the map sheet to which the overlays refer. USIS 95
covering power See angle of view. HDBK-850
crab 1. (aerial photography) The condition caused by failure to orient a camera with respect to the track of the aircraft. In vertical photography, crab is indicated by the edges of the photographs not being parallel to the air base lines. 2. (air navigation) See yaw, definition 1. HDBK-850
crab angle (JCS) The angle between the aircraft track or flight line and the fore and aft axes of a vertical camera, which are in line with the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. HDBK-850
CRES Intelligence Requirements Information System Data base that supports imagery requirements research. USIS 95
crisis Monitoring Defined as areas in which U.S. forces are not employed and where we are monitoring dynamic activity. USIS 95
criteria for inclusion Qualities considered to determine whether a standard will be included. ITSG Vol. 1
CRITIC cable A free text reporting product that electronically disseminates the results of exploitation deemed by the reporting organization to be critical to the national security interests of the United States. USIS 2-1.1
critical angle The minimum angle of incidence at which a ray of radiant energy impinging on the surface of a transparent medium is completely reflected, no part of it entering the medium. HDBK-850
critical communications Network that supports transmission of Critic Cables. USIS 95
critical deficiency An item or the condition of information or data which, because of omission, misidentification, mislocation, or other such significant error, could cause serious adverse impact on navigation safety or operational mission accomplishment. HDBK-850
Critical Design Review (CDR) A review in the development/acquisition process to assure that the recommended design of hardware and software is as close to the production configuration as possible and ready for software coding and hardware procurement. HDBK-850
critical elevation The highest elevation in any group of related and more-or-less contiguous relief formations on a map or chart. See also highest elevation. HDBK-850
critical intelligence Intelligence that is crucial and requires the immediate attention of the commander. It is required to enable the commander to make decisions that will provide a timely and appropriate response to actions by the potential/actual enemy. It includes but is not limited to the following: a. strong indications of the imminent outbreak of hostilities of any type (warning of attack); b. aggression of any nature against a friendly country; c. indications or use of nuclear-biological-chemical weapons (targets); and, d. significant events within potential enemy countries that may lead to modification of nuclear strike plans. USIS 95
critical interface A shared boundary between two functional entities. [IEEE Standard 1003.0-May 1995] ISO/TC 211
critical range The spread of ranges in which there is an element of uncertainty of interpretation of values. HDBK-850
critically inclined orbit An orbit that allows perigee to stay at the same latitude. A critically inclined orbit is inclined 63.435 or 116.565 degrees. Perigee precesses at all other inclinations. USIS 95
critically inclined/sun-synchronous orbit Exhibits the behavior of both orbits USIS 95
crop To trim or cut off parts of a photograph in order to eliminate superfluous portions and thus improve balance or composition. Usually accomplished by masking the image area during printing. HDBK-850
cross hairs A set of wires or etched lines placed on reticle held in the focal plane of a telescope. They are used as index marks for pointings of the telescope such as in a transit or level when pointings and readings must be made on a rod. HDBK-850
cross tilt An error introduced into stereotriangulation due to the inability to recover the exact camera stations for successive pairs. This condition is generally due to variations in equipment, materials, or to imperfect relative orientation. HDBK-850
cross-category services A set of tools or features or both that has a direct effect on the operation of one or more components of the OSE but is not in and of itself a stand-alone component. IEEE P1003.0
cross-check lines A series of data lines which cross the principal lines of development, preferably at right angles, which provides verification of, or reveals discrepancies in, the principal lines of the survey development. HDBK-850
Cross-Country Movement Map (CCM) A map depicting cross-country mobility estimates for the M-1 tank expressed in terms of GO, RESTRICTED, SLOW, VERY SLOW, and NO GO with corresponding average speed range predictions. Open water and urban areas are also portrayed, as are ground movement obstacles and hydrologic hindrances. Produced at 1:50,000 and 1:250,000 scale. HDBK-850
cross-country movement study A graphic or series of graphics and supporting text or tables portraying off-road movement conditions for specific vehicles or a group of vehicles. It is usually overprinted on a medium- or large-scale topographic map base. HDBK-850
cross-cueing The use of one intelligence source to initiate the collection against a particular target by another intelligence collector. USIS 95
cross-flight photography Single photo-graphic strips having stereoscopic overlap between exposures and having a flight direction at right angles to that of coexistent area coverage photography. When applied to shoran, the term implies that each of the cross-flight exposures is accompanied by recorded shoran distances. See also control strip. HDBK-850
crossing angle The angle at which two lines of position, course lines, etc., intersect. HDBK-850
crossline glass screen See halftone screen. HDBK-850
cross-section A horizontal grid system laid out on the ground for determining contours, quantities of earthwork, etc., by means of elevations of the grid points. HDBK-850
crosstalk 1. A signal which is transposed between connections. 2. Optical crosstalk, or bleeding, occurs when the light from the incorrect video image gets through. When referring to stereoscopic images, the right eye's image is visible to the left eye or vice versa. [HCI Style Guide] DISA CFS
crystal clock A device for keeping accurate time. It consists essentially of a generator of constant frequency controlled by a resonator made of quartz crystal, with suitable methods for producing continuous rotation to operate time indicating and related mechanisms. HDBK-850
culmination The position of a heavenly body when at highest apparent altitude (zenith). Known as upper culmination; also, for a heavenly body which is continually above the horizon, the position of lowest apparent altitude, known as lower culmination. Culmination occurs when the body transits the local meridian. See also lower transit; transit; upper transit. HDBK-850
cultural details See culture. HDBK-850
cultural features See culture. HDBK-850
culture (JCS) Features of the terrain that have been constructed by man. Included are such items as roads, buildings, and canals; boundary lines, and, in a broad sense, all names and legends on a map. Also called cultural details; cultural features; man-made features. HDBK-850
currency review The comparison of an existing MC&G product against source material of later date than that from which the product was produced, for the purpose of determining the products currency. HDBK-850
current chart A map of a water area depicting current speeds and directions by current roses, vectors, or other means. HDBK-850
current cycle A complete set of tidal current conditions, as those occurring during a tidal day, lunar month, or Metonic cycle. HDBK-850
current diagram A graphic presentation showing the speed of the flood and ebb currents and the times of slack and strength over a considerable stretch of the channel of a tidal waterway. The times being referred to as tide or current phases at some reference stations. HDBK-850
current exploitation Phase of national exploitation conducted within 24 hours of receipt of image. This term is no longer used. USIS 95
current intelligence Intelligence of all types and forms of immediate interest that is usually disseminated without the delays necessary to complete valuation or interpretation. USIS 95
current meter A device for determining the velocity of flowing water by ascertaining the speed at which a stream of water rotates a vane or wheel. HDBK-850
current rose A graphic presentation of currents for specified areas, utilizing arrows at the cardinal and intercardinal compass points to show the direction toward which the prevailing current flows and the percent frequency of set for a given period of time The arrows on some presentations may be further subdivided (by thickness or pattern) to designate categories of current speeds. HDBK-850
curvature correction 1. (astronomy) A correction applied to the mean of a series of observations on a star or planet to take account of the divergence to the apparent path of the star or planet from a straight line. 2. (geodesy) The correction applied in some geodetic work to take account of the divergence of the surface of the Earth (spheroid) from a plane. In geodetic spirit leveling, the effects of curvature and of atmospheric refraction are considered together, and tables have been prepared from which combined corrections can be taken. HDBK-850
curvature of Earth 1. (obstruction to line of sight) The offset from the tangent to the curve, as a result of the curvature of the Earth and refraction combined. 2. The divergence of the Earth's surface from a plane. HDBK-850
curvature of field An aberration affecting the longitudinal position of images off the axis in such a manner that objects in a plane perpendicular to the axis are imaged in a curved or dish-shaped surface. HDBK-850
curve See color mixture curve; degree of curve; distortion curve; exterior to a curve; interior to a curve; isoperimetric curve; latitudinal curve; middle point; point of compound curvature; point of curvature; point of cusp; point of inflection; point of intersection; point of reverse curvature; point of tangency; point of vertical curve; point of vertical tangent; spiral curve; transition curve; vertical curve. HDBK-850
curve of alignment A line connecting two points on the surface of the spheroid and defined by the condition that at every point the azimuths of the two end points of the line differ by exactly 180. A curve of alignment is a line of double curvature slightly less in length than the normal section lines connecting its two end points. HDBK-850
curve of equal bearing A curve connecting all points at which the great-circle bearing of a given point is the same. HDBK-850
curve to spiral (JCS) The common point between the circular arc and the tangent spiral. HDBK-850
curved path error The difference between the length of a ray refracted by the atmosphere and the straight-line distance between the ends of the ray. HDBK-850
curvilinear coordinates Any linear coordinates which are not Cartesian coordinates. Frequently used curvilinear coordinates are polar coordinates and cylindrical coordinates. HDBK-850
custodian The activity responsible for resolving and consolidating coordination comments for standardization documents or studies within its Department or Agency, and submitting those comments to the Preparing Activity. [DOD 4120.3-M] DISA CFS
cut 1. An observation between two points, one of which is known. Also a graphic representation of such an observation. See also intersection; resection. 2. A printed sheet of specific symbols used in cartography, such as swamp, sand, route markers, etc. 3. A section of the right-of-way of a line of communication, such as a road or railroad, that has been excavated in order to reduce the grade (vertical inclination) or to allow sufficient lateral clearance for the roadbed, as on the side of a hill. 4. A notch, passage, or channel worn by natural action, as of water. HDBK-850
cut line The guide line sketched on a photograph to indicate where it should be cut or torn in order to form the best possible match of detail with the photographs immediately adjacent to it when laying a mosaic. HDBK-850
cut tape See subtracting tape. HDBK-850
cutoff cylinder An accessory apparatus, used in standardization operations to refer the end of a base tape or bar standard to a ground mark. HDBK-850
cutoff line A survey line run between two or more stations on a linear traverse for the purpose of producing a closed traverse of that part of the survey. HDBK-850
cutting positive A printing on glass of the contour drawing used to make the etched zinc plate. A preliminary step in relief model production. HDBK-850
cycle An operation which consists of the regular recurrence of an event or a state. ISO/TC 211
cylindrical coordinates A system of curvilinear coordinates in which the position of a point in space is determined by (1) its perpendicular distance from a given line, (2) its distance from a selected reference plane perpendicular to this line, and (3) its angular distance from a selected reference line when projected onto this plane. Also called circular cylindrical coordinates; cylindrical polar coordinates. HDBK-850
cylindrical equal-area map projection A cylindrical map projection upon a cylinder tangent to a sphere, showing the geographic meridians as a family of equal-spaced parallel straight lines perpendicular to a second family of parallel straight lines which represent the geographic parallels, and which are so spaced as to produce an equal-area map projection. The equal-area condition preserves a constant ratio between corresponding ground and map areas. This projection must not be confused with the Mercator projection to which it bears some general resemblance. HDBK-850
cylindrical equal-spaced map projection A cylindrical map projection upon a cylinder tangent to a sphere, showing the geographic meridians as a family of equal-spaced parallel straight lines perpendicular to a second family of equal-spaced parallel straight lines which represent the geographic parallels. The spacing of the parallels need not be the same as that of the meridians. HDBK-850
cylindrical lens A lens in which the surfaces are segments of cylinders. HDBK-850
cylindrical map projection A map projection produced by projecting the geographic meridians and parallels onto a cylinder which is tangent to (or intersects) the surface of a sphere, and then developing the cylinder into a plane. HDBK-850
cylindrical polar coordinates See cylindrical coordinates. HDBK-850

Last Updated by Mark Owens 17 February 1999.