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Term Definition/Description Source
ice chart A chart showing prevalence of ice, usually with reference to navigable waterways. HDBK-850
ice surveillance products Plotting charts, report forms, and other products used for the collection and dissemination of ice position information. HDBK-850
iced-bar apparatus An apparatus for measuring linear distance with great precision and accuracy, and consisting essentially of a steel bar which is maintained at a constant temperature by being surrounded with melting ice. The bar is rectangular in cross section, and is carried in a Y-shaped trough which is filled with melting ice and mounted on a car which moves on a track. Bar lengths are observed with micrometer microscopes mounted on stable supports. Also called Woodward base-line measuring apparatus. HDBK-850
Icelandic Defense Force A subordinate Unified Command under USACOM located at Keflavik Air Station, Iceland. USIS 95
icon Graphical representation of an object, concept, or message used by a computer system to represent items such as files, documents, programs, and disk drives. [HCI Style Guide] DISA CFS
icon In computer systems, a small, pictorial representation of an application software package, idea, or concept used in a window or a menu to represent commands, files, or options FED STD 1037C
ideal Earth See equilibrium theory. HDBK-850
ideal sea level The theoretical sea surface which is everywhere normal to the plumb line. Reference of all depth soundings to this level would make them all comparable. HDBK-850
identification posts Posts of wood or other suitable material, appropriately marked and inscribed, and placed near survey stations to aid in their recovery and identification. Also called supplemental posts for survey monuments. HDBK-850
identifier A label that uniquely identifies an item or a group of items. ISO/TC 211
idle pendulum A working pendulum placed in the receiver in advance of its being used, so that it may assume the same temperature as the dummy pendulum. HDBK-850
illumination angle The horizontal plane angle which states the direction from which radar energy was projected. USIS 95
image 1. The permanent record of the likeness of any natural or man-made features, objects, and activities reproduced on photographic materials. This image can be acquired through the sensing of visual or any other segment of the electromagnetic spectrum by sensors, such as thermal infrared, and high resolution radar. See also erect image; homologous images; inverted image; latent image; real image; reverted image; thermal imagery; virtual image. 2. A visual representation, as on a radarscope. HDBK-850
image compression An operation that, through various techniques, reduces the quantity of stored data needed to represent a digital image. USIS 95
image correlation The matching of position and physical characteristics between imagery of the same geographic area from different types of sensors, between sensor imagery and a data base, or between two images from the same sensor. HDBK-850
image data All data collected by a sensor, which after processing, comprises an image. USIS 95
image degradation (photometry) The reduction of the inherent optimum imaging potential of individual sensor systems caused by error in sensor operations or processing procedures. Reductions in quality caused by unavoidable factors; i e., atmospherics, snow cover, etc., are not associated with the term. HDBK-850
image direction A term used to describe the image orientation of a photographic negative or positive relative to the position of the emulsion. See also emulsion-to-base; emulsion-to-emulsion; right-reading; wrong-reading. HDBK-850
image displacement In a photograph, any dimensional or positional error. USIS 95
image distortion Any shift in the position of an image on a photograph which alters the perspective characteristics of the photograph. Causes of image distortion include lens aberration, differential shrinkage of film or paper, and motion of the film or camera. HDBK-850
image distribution requirements Data defining the quantities of film, negatives, and positives and the required timelines for physical delivery; the distribution criteria for each imagery recipient; and the definition of image dissemination codes. USIS 95
image enhancement Any one of a group of operations that improve the detectability of features in an image. These operations include contrast improvement, edge enhancement, spatial filtering, noise suppression, image smoothing, and image sharpening. USIS 95
Image Manipulation Analysis and Graphics Exploitation System Advanced commercial softcopy image processing computer-aided design (CAD) and mensuration system designed for independent imagery analytical operation. USIS 95
image motion The smearing or blurring of imagery on an aerial photograph because of the relative movement of the camera with respect to the ground. HDBK-850
Image Motion Compensation (IMC) (JCS) Movement intentionally imparted to film at such a rate as to compensate for the forward motion of an air or space vehicle when photographing ground objects. HDBK-850
image motion compensation distortion In a panoramic camera system, the displacement of images of ground points from their expected cylindrical position caused by the translation of the lens or negative surface (a motion used to compensate for image motion during exposure time). HDBK-850
image motion factors Those factors wherein the image motion varies directly with the aircraft ground speed and lens focal length and inversely with the altitude. HDBK-850
image motion sensor Device that detects and compensates for image motion during imaging activities. USIS 95
Image Perspective Transformation This product type includes video and hardcopy format showing several views of a scene with other than the original image geometry. This product type is used to simulate movement around a scene at ground or flight level. USIS 95
image plane See photograph plane. HDBK-850
image point (photogrammetry) Image on a photograph corresponding to a definite object on the ground. HDBK-850
image processing Encompasses all the various operations that can be applied to photographic or image data. These include, but are not limited to, image compression, image restoration, image enhancement, preprocessing, quantization, spatial filtering and other image pattern recognition techniques. HDBK-850
image processing support data The data required to support the various operations that can be applied to image data prior to it being transformed into products suitable for dissemination and exploitation. USIS 95
Image Product Library (IPL) A library designed to contain imagery, exploited imagery and imagery-derived products or data. USIS 95
image products Image reproductions in less than full frame format at contact or modified scale. Examples include photographic prints, viewgraphs, and transparencies, image perspective transformations and digital data. USIS 95
image quality factors affecting the detectability of features in an image. Factors include contrast, edge resolution, sharpness, and noise. See National Imagery Interpretation Rating Scall (NIIRS). USIS 95
image ray Straight line from a ground object, through the camera lens, to the image on the photograph. See also perspective ray. HDBK-850
image segment The segmentation of an imaging operation into parts, originally based on the hardcopy film size (5x9). An algorithm determines the allocation and size of parts when the imaging operation exceeds the size of one segment. It is mode and image length dependent. The translation is made from imaging operation to image segments. USIS 95
image support data (ISD) (UCDM Entity: "IMAGE-SUPPORT-DATA") A dataset of information concerning the capture, processing and exploitation of an image. USIGS/CDM-A
imagery (DOD, NATO) Collectively, the representations of objects reproduced electronically or by optical means on film, electronic display devices, or other media. JPUB 1-02
imagery Generic term (such as photography) which encompasses the science of representing points or areas electronically or by optical means on film, electronic display devices, or other media. Sometimes used as a categorical plural form of "image", as in "No imagery of the target was acquired" vice "No images of the target were acquired". USIS 2-1.1
Imagery & Geospatial Community (IGC) The composition of cooperating commands, services, agencies, and departments within the United States Government, foreign governments, and private sector organizations involved in the acquisition, production and exploitation, and dissemination of imagery, imagery intelligence, and geospatial information. The IGC fosters extensive partnerships with others, including commercial and academic institutions, to collaboratively work together to share information. NIMA SP
imagery analysis The process of converting extracted imagery information into intelligence about the objects, installations, activities, and areas that are recorded on imagery. USIS 95
Imagery Analysis Brief (IAB) A hardcopy reporting product that distributes a single target or topic report by means of an annotated image (paper or transparency) with associated briefing notes. This product is sometimes called a briefing board or mini-board. USIS 2-1.1
Imagery Analysis Memorandum A quick turnaround formatted product used to convey imagery derived information within a DoD organization. USIS 95
Imagery Analysis Note A quick-turnaround unformatted product used to convey imagery derived information within an organization. USIS 95
Imagery Analysis Report This is produced by various organizations. For example, the National Air Intelligence Center (NAIC) product represents the detailed, in-depth, imagery exploitation of a foreign weapon, weapon system or research and development facility accompanied by graphics, engineering drawings, and/or solid models used in the Scientific and Technical engineering. USIS 95
imagery analyst (IA) A person within an exploitation element whose day-to-day job is to extract information from imagery. This group includes the first-line supervisor who routinely reviews the results of imagery interpretation. USIS 95
imagery collection products These are the results of imagery intelligence collection. These data may be imagery or nonimagery materials. USIS 95
imagery correlation The mutual relationship between the different signatures on imagery from different types of sensors in terms of position and the physical characteristics signified. USIS 95
Imagery Data Exploitation System (IDEX) A sophisticated production device/system for exploiting and enhancing imagery in soft copy. USIS 95
imagery derived information Intelligence or intelligence information that is obtained exclusively from imagery. USIS 2-1.1
imagery exploitation The act of extracting intelligence or intelligence information from an image. USIS 95
imagery functional manager An individual responsible for oversight of imagery system operations and the imagery system architecture within a command or for all or a portion of the imagery community. USIS 95
Imagery Indexing System A PC-based system used within DIA to geolocationally index Peacetime Aerial Reconnaissance Program (PARPRO) and other airbreather hardcopy imagery, allowing its subsequent cataloging for storage and retrieval. USIS 95
Imagery Information Need Abbreviated nominations for imagery requirements generated by any of the automated non- Requirements Management System (RMS) systems maintaining automated technical interfaces with RMS. Also known as seed nominations. USIS 95
imagery intelligence (IMINT) Intelligence derived from the exploitation of collection by visual photography, infrared sensors, lasers, electro-optics and radar sensors such as synthetic aperture radar wherein images of objects are reproduced optically or electronically on film, electronic display devices or other media. JPUB 1-02
imagery intelligence products The intelligence data derived from the primary image record (PIR) after interpretation and/or analysis. These products include both imagery and imagery-derived products. USIS 95
imagery interpretation (JCS) The process of location, recognition, identification, and description of objects, activities, and terrain represented on imagery. HDBK-850
imagery interpretation key (JCS) Any diagrams, charts, tables, lists, or sets of examples, etc., which are used to aid imagery interpreters in the rapid identification of objects visible on imagery. HDBK-850
Imagery Interpretation Report (IIR) A Department of Defense (DoD) account of imagery derived information pertaining to one or more specified targets, and resulting from exploitation of imagery from one or more collection systems and one or more collection missions. USIS 2-1.1
Imagery Interpretation Report Message (IIRM) An electronically transmitted product with one or more DoD imagery interpretation reports from the originator to specified data bases. USIS 95
Imagery Level 0 Systems corrections only and raw metadata extraction from telemetry stream is done. These corrections are applied to all imaging events of a given sensor uniformly independent of where the data were collected. OGC RFI
Imagery Level 1 The metadata are refined and additions may be made. Radiometric and geometric calibrations may be undertaken using external information. OGC RFI
Imagery Level 1A Geographic formatting using the sensor system's geographic knowledge. The image pixels values are not adjusted, but based on internal system information, metadata values may change or new metadata is added. OGC RFI
Imagery Level 1G Photogrammetric geopositioning of the sensor data using external geo-referenced information. OGC RFI
Imagery Level 1N A non-mapping product that may be used for many different purposes. In most cases, Level 1N products are not used for cartographic or GIS-Mapping purposes, because the accuracy can not be certified. OGC RFI
Imagery Level 1R Radiometric adjustment using the sensor system's radiometric calibration data measurements. OGC RFI
Imagery Level 2 This processing involves image pixel modification, transformation and compilation of products from Level 1 data. OGC RFI
Imagery Level 2F Feature compilation and/or thematic classification from Level 1G Data. OGC RFI
Imagery Level 2G Geometric transformation of sensor data based on the results of photogrammetric geopositioning. This level includes rectification and orthorectification. OGC RFI
Imagery Level 2R Radiometric modification of Level 1 Data using external information. OGC RFI
Imagery Level 2T Terrain compilation from Level 1G Data. OGC RFI
Imagery Level 3 This processing involves the extraction and/or classification of image data. OGC RFI
Imagery Level 3F Feature extraction and/or thematic classification from the Level 2 data products. OGC RFI
Imagery Level 3T Terrain extraction from the Level 2T data products. Examples include the generation of a regular grid of elevation posts interpolated from an irregular Imagery Level 2T network of elevation posts, and the generation of surface polynomials, tesselated patches, or contours from Level 2T values. OGC RFI
Imagery Level 4 The generation of symbolized products from Level 2 and 3 data. OGC RFI
Imagery Level 4F Feature Symbolization - generation of map symbols or the color assignment of thematic classes/categories. They are generated from Level 2 compiled and Level 3 extracted features. OGC RFI
Imagery Level 4T Terrain symbolization - generation of symbolized terrain displays, such as shaded relief displays, wire frame models, tagged and/or colorized contours. OGC RFI
imagery map Also referred to as photomaps or mapping imagery products. Normally, the product is based on a background of imagery, which is overlaid with annotations and symbols that explain, amplify or highlight ground features. USIS 95
imagery pack (DOD, NATO) An assembly of the records from different imagery sensors covering a common target area. JPUB 1-02
imagery process The operations that make up the imagery process are: Requirements Management, Collection, Processing, Production and Delivery. These individual processes are supported by DoD and other Federal Government departments, agencies, organizations, commands, elements, and personnel that collectively or individually handle imagery; generate products or reports based on imagery; develop imagery capabilities; train imagery personnel; or plan, program, and budget for imagery resources. USIS 95
imagery processing The handling, manipulation, composing, or transformation of imagery system data to convert it into useful, manageable, or exploitable formats; in photographic or optical systems, the operations necessary to produce negative or positive film or print images for viewing or exploitation from the original film record; in electro optical systems or synthetic aperture radar systems, the operations necessary to produce an exploitable image from digital or electro optical data. USIS 95
imagery product The documented results of exploitation or analysis of imagery and imagery derived data placed onto electronic or physical media. Imagery products may include pictures, text, graphics, data base entries, voice reports, annotated images or graphics, videos such as gun camera tapes or terrain videos, maps, charts, geo-positioning data, image mosaics, handheld camera photographs, and machine produced image mosaics and maps. Also known as imagery-based product. USIS 95
Imagery Product Archive See Imagery Product Library (IPL). USIS 95
Imagery Reconnaissance Objectives File The primary file of the Imagery Reconnaissance Objectives Program that lists individual DoD requester's requirements on various imagery reconnaissance objectives. All DoD requirements registered in the IROF have been validated. USIS 95
Imagery Reconnaissance Objectives List The term used for any of the various volumes of listings produced from the IROF. USIS 95
Imagery Reconnaissance Objectives Program The DIA management program that uses an automated system containing data on imagery reconnaissance requirements to support imagery collection and exploitation activities. USIS 95
imagery reference line Part of some imagery reports, this line contains relative information about the collection parameters for a specific image. USIS 95
imagery reporting The act of compiling and disseminating exploitation and imagery analysis results directly to consumers and/or entering the same intelligence into any data retrieval system. USIS 95
imagery sortie (JCS) One flight by one aircraft for the purpose of recording air imagery. HDBK-850
imagery support data Management data necessary to support image collection, processing, exploitation, and the generation of image products. USIS 95
Imagery Support System An automated intelligence requirements management system that will send seed nominations from National Air Intelligence Center (NAIC) to the Requirements Management System (RMS) via an automated technical interface. It will also receive nominations status update information, purpose of image (POI) data, and worldwide cloud cover data from RMS. USIS 95
imagery technical data Technical information associated with foreign intelligence collection and exploitation through imaging reconnaissance. Such information includes ephemeris data, camera data, math modes, and collection problem sets. USIS 95
imagery-based product See imagery product. USIS 95
imagery-derived information Intelligence or intelligence information that is obtained exclusively from imagery. USIS 95
Imagery-Derived Product (IDP) Literal (image-like) or graphic representations of an original image or information extracted from the image. The purposes of IDPs are to: 1) create value-added products that highlight specific types of information in the image; 2) merge reconnaissance imagery with data from other sources; 3) create imagery products or data that can be declassified; or 4) compress imagery data for more efficient transmission. IDPs can be created using analog or digital 'techniques', and stored in either a hardcopy or softcopy format. IDPs from reconnaissance satellite imagery are marked and handled at the same classification as the original image unless they are created and used according to CIO [NIMA] policy guidance and previously approved for particular applications by the Director, CIO [NIMA]. [For the purposes of CIO [NIMA] policy, intelligence reporting and 'traditional' maps or charts are not considered imagery-derived products.] USIS 95
imagery-derived product technique An analog or digital capability, process, or algorithm that creates an imagery-derived product (IDP). Director, CIO [NIMA] approval is required if an organization wishes to use an IDP technique to create imagery products at a classification below that of the original image USIS 95
imagery-derived product use Specific details regarding the imagery-derived product (IDP) type and description, use/benefit, intended recipients, dissemination controls, production location and duration, classification review responsibility, and feasibility of alternate imagery sources that must be provided to the Director, CIO [NIMA] to receive approval to use collateral reconnaissance satellite imagery to create declassified imagery-derived products. USIS 95
imaging Creating a film or electronic image of any picture or paper form. It is accomplished by scanning or photographing an object and turning it into a matrix of dots (raster graphics), the meaning of which is unknown to the computer, only to the human viewer. Scanned images of text may be encoded into computer data (ASCII or EBCDIC) with page recognition software (OCR). (Techweb Technology Encyclopedia) Multimedia
imaging event The sensor collection unit (e.g., a continuous strip or swath of a satellite sensor or aerial photograph frame). OGC RFI
imaging operation The operation of a camera (or other imaging device) in order to generate an image that is characterized by one set of viewing parameters. USIS 95
imaging reconnaissance materials Imaging reconnaissance materials are all data associated with imaging reconnaissance, collection, intelligence, and map products, as well as imagery technical data. The term "material" is all inclusive and applies to such formats as briefings, target materials, memoranda, reports, and other publications associated with imaging reconnaissance. USIS 95
imaging satellite materials Materials directly associated with, or derived from, imaging satellite reconnaissance. Such materials include: imagery primary imaging records and imagery products, imagery-derived products and imagery technical data. USIS 95
imaging spectrometer Imaging spectrometers, or hyperspectral scanners, are instruments that acquire multispectral images in many, very narrow, contiguous spectral bands throughout the visible, near-IR, and mid-IR portions of the spectrum. These systems typically collect 200 or more channels of data, which enables the construction of an effectivey continuous reflectance spectrum for every pixel in the scene. The intent of these systems is to permit discrimination among earth surface features that have diagnostic absorption and reflection characteristics over narrow wavelength intervals that are "lost" within the relatively coarse bandwidths of the various channels of a conventioanl multispectral scanner. See also hyperspectral sensor, hyperspectral imaging sensor. Lillesand 94
imaging spectrometry The acquisition of images in hundreds of registered, contiguous spectral bands such that for each picture element (pixel) it is possible to derive a complete reflectance spectrum. See hyperspectral. USIS 95
imaging systems (satellite) Imaging systems carried on satellites can be placed in two basic categories, according to the requirements to be met by their applications: (1) remote sensing for interpretation is characterized by the fact the nature of the object imaged is of primary importance, and the geometry is of minor importance; and (2) satellite photogrammetry is characterized by the geometry which is of primary interest, and the nature of the object is of minor importance. HDBK-850
imaging time The time required to acquire an image (excludes maneuvering and settling times.) USIS 95
imaging window The period of time during a passage of a satellite around the Earth during which the vehicle can image targets. USIS 95
Immediate Photo Interpretation Report A national target report or a DoD imagery interpretation report that contains imagery-derived information from first-phase exploitation of aircraft imagery. Formerly called an "Initial Photo Interpretation Report" USIS 95
impersonal micrometer See transit micrometer. HDBK-850
implementation A definition that provides the information needed to create an object and allow the object to participate in providing an appropriate set of services. An implementation typically includes a description of the data structure used to represent the core state associated with an object, as well as definitions of the methods that access that data structure. It will also typically include information about the intended interface of the object. CORBA 2.2
implementation A software package that conforms to a standard or specification. A specific instance of a more generally defined system. OpenGIS Guide
implementation conformance The state of an implementation being in conformance with a standard. A conforming implementation supports all required features of a standard and may provide additional functions or facilities not required by the standard. Nonstandard extensions may change the behavior of functions of facilities defined by the standard, but the standard behavior remains available. (IEEE Std. P1003.1-1900) ITSG Vol. 1
implementation definition language A notation for describing implementations. The implementation definition language is currently beyond the scope of the ORB standard. It may contain vendor-specific and adapter-specific notations. CORBA 2.2
implementation inheritance The construction of an implementation by incremental modification of other implementations. The ORB does not provide implementation inheritance. Implementation inheritance may be provided by higher level tools. CORBA 2.2
implementation object An object that serves as an implementation definition. Implementation objects reside in an implementation repository. CORBA 2.2
implementation repository A storage place for object implementation information. CORBA 2.2
Implementation Under Test (IUT) That part of a product which is to be studied under testing. NOTE - IUT should be an implementation of one or more characteristics of the standard(s) based on a given implementation method. ISO/TC 211
import The process of bringing data or software from one system into another system. HDBK-850
imposition Positioning and assembling negatives or positives into printing location on a flat. HDBK-850
impression The inked image received by a sheet in a press. Commonly used as a measure of printing production or capacity. HDBK-850
impulse response (IPR) A quantitative statement of resolution produced by an imaging radar system that refers to its ability to separate closely spaced objects. IPR is the minimum resolvable separation between two equal points/objects. USIS 95
in-and-out station A recoverable but unoccupied station incorporated into a traverse by recording a fictitious deflection angle of 180° to reverse the azimuth of the course leading into it, so that the next station coincides with the preceding station and the in-and-out station is used as the backsight for continuing the traverse. In the computations it is treated as an ordinary station in the traverse. HDBK-850
incident nodal point See nodal point, definition 1. HDBK-850
inclination 1. The angle which a line or surface makes with the vertical, horizontal, or with another line or surface. 2. The angle between orbit plane and reference plane; for example, the Equator is the reference plane for geocentric, and the ecliptic for heliocentric orbits. 3. See dip, definition 2. HDBK-850
inclination correction See grade correction. HDBK-850
inclination of the horizontal axis The vertical angle between the horizontal axis of a surveying or astronomic instrument and the plane of the horizon. HDBK-850
incline sight A sight made with a surveying instrument at an angle above or below the horizon. HDBK-850
inclinometer An instrument for measuring inclination to the horizontal of a ship or aircraft, or of the lines of force of the Earth's magnetic field. HDBK-850
inclusion A topological property which provides relationships between objects which are enclosed by or overlap another object. Examples of inclusion are an island surrounded by water, or a town within and a part of a larger administrative area. See also topology. HDBK-850
independent resurvey A resurvey which is not dependent on the records of the original survey but is intended to supersede them in establishing new land boundaries and subdivisions. See also dependent resurvey. HDBK-850
index chart An outline chart showing the limits and identifying designations of navigational charts, volumes of sailing directions, etc. HDBK-850
index contour line (JCS) A contour line accentuated by a heavier line weight to distinguish it from intermediate contours. Index contours are usually shown as every fifth contour with their assigned values, to facilitate reading elevations. HDBK-850
index correction 1. A correction applied to the reading from any graduated measuring device to compensate for a constant error such as would be caused by misplacement of the scale; the reverse of the index error. 2. (leveling) That correction which must be applied to an observed difference of elevation to eliminate the error introduced into the observations when the zero of the graduations on one or both leveling rods does not coincide exactly with the actual bottom surface of the rod. HDBK-850
index error The instrumental error which is constant and attributable to displacement of a vernier or some analogous effect. HDBK-850
index mark A real mark, such as a cross or dot, Iying in the plane or the object space of a photograph and used singly as a reference mark in certain types of monocular instruments, or as one of a pair to form a floating mark as in certain types of stereoscopes. In stereoscopic map plotting instruments which utilize a stereo pair of index marks, each mark is called a half mark. See also floating mark. HDBK-850
index of refraction See Snell's law of refraction. HDBK-850
index prism A sextant prism which can be rotated to any angle corresponding to altitudes between established limits. It is the bubble or pendulum sextant counterpart of the index mirror of a marine sextant. HDBK-850
index to photography See photo index, definition 1. HDBK-850
indexing Recording the geographic area imaged, cloud obscuration, and the interpretability of the imagery acquired, along with the imagery reference data needed to permit recall of that imagery for future exploitation. USIS 95
Indian datum The Indian datum is accepted as the preferred datum for India and several adjacent countries in Southeast Asia. It is computed on the Everest ellipsoid with its origin at Kalianpur in Central India. Derived in 1830, the Everest ellipsoid is the oldest of the ellipsoids in common use and is much too small. As a result of the latter, the datum cannot be extended too far from the origin or very large geoid separations will occur. For this reason and the fact that the ties between local triangulation in Southeast Asia are typically weak, the Indian datum is probably the least satisfactory of the preferred datums. HDBK-850
Indian spring low water The approximate mean water level determined from all lower low waters at spring tides. HDBK-850
Indian tide plane The datum of Indian spring low water. HDBK-850
indicated corner A term adopted by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) to designate a corner of the public land surveys whose location cannot be verified by the criteria necessary to class it as a found or existent corner, but which is accepted locally as the correct corner and whose location is perpetuated by such marks as fence line intersections, piles of rocks, and stakes or pipes driven into the ground, which have been recovered by field investigation. HDBK-850
indicated principal point See principal point. HDBK-850
Indications and Warning The process of using current intelligence information to develop indicators for determination and warning of imminent hostilities. USIS 95
Indications and Warning Cable (I&W CABLE) An electronic reporting product that disseminates one or more national topic reports that provide information on the threat of hostile actions against United States forces, its interest, or its allies. USIS 2-1.1
Indications and Warning Target A target that provides the highest probability of detecting imminent hostile intent in the context of the prevailing state of political relations (i.e., peacetime/normal, period of elevated political tension, period of crisis) and also provides clear observables, distinct from routine activity. USIS 95
indicator In intelligence usage, an item of information that reflects the intention or capability of a potential enemy to adopt or reject a course of action. USIS 95
indirect effect on the deflections See topographic deflection. HDBK-850
indirect evaluation method A method of evaluation quality of geospatial data set based on data quality metric values estimated by deduction using external knowledge and information, such as usage, lineage, quality of source data used for the production and so forth ISO/TC 211
indirect Ieveling See barometric leveling; thermometric leveling; trigonometric leveling. HDBK-850
indirect measurement Any measurement secured by determining its quantity from its relation to some measured quantity. A technique used in surveying when it is impossible to actually tape a distance across a river or other such obstruction. See also direct measurement. HDBK-850
indirect observation A measure of a quantity which is a function of the quantity or quantities whose value is desired, such as an observed difference in elevation with a spirit level, used to obtain the elevation of a bench mark. HDBK-850
indirect photography Photography in which the camera records an image cast upon a screen or similar display surface by electronic (television, radar, etc.) or other means. HDBK-850
indirect position Position information other than coordinates. EXAMPLE: postal address. CEN/TC 287
indirect position spatial reference not based on co-ordinates ISO/TC 211
indirect spatial reference system A spatial reference system not based upon a co-ordinate system. CEN/TC 287
inequality A systematic departure from the mean value of a quantity. See also annual inequality; diurnal inequality; lunar inequality; parallactic inequality; parallax inequality; phase inequality; variational inequality. HDBK-850
inertial azimuth An azimuth which approximates the value which could be obtained from astronomic observations, but which is derived from direct observations along the line of sight with an inertial azimuth measuring device consisting of a north-seeking gyroscope combined with a theodolite. See also gyrotheodolite. HDBK-850
inertial coordinate system A coordinate system in which the axes do not rotate with respect to the "fixed stars" and in which dynamic behavior can be described using Newton's laws of motion. HDBK-850
inertial guidance system A system in which guidance is permitted by means of the measurement and integration of acceleration from within the craft. HDBK-850
Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) (missile guidance) A compact component of an inertial guidance system which has three accelerometers mounted on a gyrostabilized platform. See also accelerometer. HDBK-850
inertial navigation The process of measuring a craft's velocity, attitude (in the submarine missile launching applications), and displacement (including changes in altitude in the aircraft application) from a known starting point through sensing the accelerations acting on it in known directions by means of devices that mechanize Newton's laws of motion. HDBK-850
inertial navigation system A system which is not dependent on man-made electromagnetic signals. Newton's second law of motion is utilized with a system consisting of accelerometers mounted on gyrostabilized platforms, each for measuring longitudinal, lateral, and vertical accelerations. The double integration of all accelerations in three mutually perpendicular directions provides distance traveled (from a known starting point) in three mutually perpendicular directions. Navigation is by a highly refined form of dead reckoning with system position being updated from other navigational references in the more sophisticated systems. HDBK-850
inertial reference photography Cartographic aerial photography obtained simultaneously with magnetic tape recorded inertial reference positioning data. HDBK-850
inferior conjunction The conjunction of an inferior planet and the Sun when the planet is between the Earth and the Sun. HDBK-850
inferior planets The planets with orbits smaller than that of the Earth, i.e., Mercury and Venus. HDBK-850
inferior transit See lower transit. HDBK-850
infinity The point, line, or region beyond measurable limits. An unaltered source of light is regarded as at infinity if it is at such a great distance that rays from it can be considered parallel. HDBK-850
information knowledge concerning objects, such as facts, events, things, processes, or ideas, including concepts, that within a certain context has a particular meaning. ISO/TC 211
information Any communication or representation of knowledge such as facts, data, or opinions, in any medium or form, including textual, numerical, graphic, cartographic, narrative, or audiovisual forms. [OMB CIRC A-130] TAFIM 3.0
information appliance End-user equipment having input and display (or auditory) capabilities for communication with other users or service providers in the NII [National Information Infrastructure]. OpenGIS Guide
Information Community A community of geodata producers and users who have a common set of geographic feature definitions. OpenGIS Guide
Information Domain A set of commonly and unambiguously labeled information objects with a common security policy that defines the protections to be afforded the objects by authorized users and information management systems. [DISSP] DISA CFS
information element Warfighter information, identified in an information exchange requirement (IER), used in support of a particular activity and between two activities. C4ISR AF
Information Exchange Requirement (IER) A requirement for the context of an information flow. Associated with an IER are such performance attributes as information size, throughput, timelines, quality, and quantity values. C4ISR AF
Information Management (IM) The creation, use, sharing, and disposition of information as a resource critical to the effective and efficient operation of functional activities. The structuring of functional processes to produce and control the use of data and information within functional activities, information systems, and computing and communications infrastructures. [DoDD 8000.1] TAFIM 3.0
information model A term used to describe the information resources of the organization and their interrelationships. It is used to support data modeling and resulting database and document storage design requirements. It provides the information resource managers' views of the data architecture. TAFIM 3.0
Information Resources Management (IRM) The planning, budgeting, organizing, directing, training, promoting, controlling, and management activities associated with the burden (cost), collection, creation, use, and dissemination of information by Agencies. IRM includes the management of information and related resources, such as Federal information processing (FIP) resources. [PL No 99-591, DODD 8000.1.] DISA CFS
Information Security The measures and controls that safeguard and protect an information system against unauthorized (accidental or intentional) disclosure, modification, or destruction of information systems and data, and denial of service. [DISA/DO3 (CIO)] DISA CFS
Information Storage Interface (ISI) The interface across which information technology interacts with external storage media. The service provided through this interface is persistent storage of data, where the physical storage media is often removable. OpenGIS Guide
information system (IS) (A&D LDM Entity: "INFORMATION-SYSTEM") A collection of information resources combined to achieve a directed prupose. A&D LDM
information system (IS) A system consisting of mission-specific or functional applications, data, and technical architecture consisting of support applications, application platforms, and the external environment including devices such as terminals, printers, and communications networks. DII MP
information system (IS) Communications, automated information or intelligence systems or equipment that assists in planning, directing, and controlling forces. C4I Systems consist of hardware, software, personnel, facilities, and procedures and represent the integration of information (including data), information processing, and information transfer systems organized to collect, produce, store, display, and disseminate information. DISA CFS
information system (IS) Any telecommunications and/or computer related equipment or interconnected system or subsystems of equipment that is used in the acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission, or reception of voice and/or data, and includes software, firmware, and hardware. FED STD 1037C
information system (IS) A mechanism used for acquiring, filing, storing, and retrieving an organized body of knowledge. Syn: information storage and retrieval system. [IEEE 610.5] IEEE 610-1990
information system (IS) (TAP) Any interconnected system that is used in the acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, movement, control or display of MCG&I information, data, products or intelligence, and includes software, firmware, and hardware. NIMA/AR
information system (IS) A collection of people, procedures, and equipment designed, built, operated, and maintained to collect, record, process, store, retrieve, and display information Webster Computer
Information System Security (INFOSEC) The protection of information systems against unauthorized access to or modification of information, whether in storage, processing or transit and against the denial of service to authorized users or the provision of service to unauthorized users, including those measures necessary to detect, document, and counter such threats, (1993 Information Systems Security Manual). DISA CFS
information technology (IT) The technology included in hardware and software used for Government information, regardless of the technology involved, whether computers, communications, micro-graphics, or others. [OMB Circular A-130 and DODD 8000.1.] DISA CFS
information technology (IT) Technology related to computer hardware and software for the processing, storage, and transfer of information. ITSG Vol. 1
information technology (IT) A. The term "information technology", with respect to an executive agency means any equipment or interconnected system or subsystem of equipment, that is used in the automatic acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission, or reception of data or information by the executive agency. For purposes of the preceding sentence, equipment is used by an executive agency if the equipment is used by the executive agency directly or is used by a contractor under a contract with the executive agency which (i) requires the use of such equipment, or (ii) requires the use, to a significant extent, of such equipment in the performance of a service or the furnishing of a product. B. The term "information technology" includes computers, ancillary equipment, software, firmware and similar procedures, services (including support services), and related resources. C. Notwithstanding subparagraphs (A) and (B), the term "information technology" does not include any equipment that is acquired by a Federal contractor incidental to a Federal contract. (Information Technology Management Reform Act (ITMRA) of 1996. See http://www.dtic.mil/c3i/cio/itmra.Annot.html) JTA 2.0
information technology (IT) standards Information technology (IT) standards provide technical definitions for information system processes, procedures, practices, operations, services, interfaces, connectivity, interoperability, information formats content, interchange and transmission/transfer. IT standards apply during the development, testing, fielding, enhancement, and life-cycle maintenance of DOD information systems. DISA CFS
information view The information viewpoint represents retained information or data within the system and the relationships of that data. IEEE 1471
Information View Description A document describing the various information viewpoints of a system's architecture. NIMA/AR
Information Viewpoint A viewpoint on a system and its environment that focuses on the semantics of information and information processing. RM-ODP
information visualization A method of analysis that shifts information processing from the lexical to the spatial realm to enable rapid discovery, understanding, and presentation of data. USIS 95
InformationServices Interface (ISI) The boundary across which external, persistent storage service is provided. IEEE P1003.0
infrared Pertaining to or designating the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum with wavelengths just beyond the red end of the visible spectrum, such as radiation emitted by a hot body. Invisible to the eye, infrared rays are detected by their thermal and photographic effects. Their wavelengths are longer than those of visible light and shorter than those of radio waves. HDBK-850
infrared Electromagnetic radiation having wavelengths greater than visible light (0.75 microns and shorter than microwaves (1,000 microns or 1.0 mm). One of five types of imagery. The other four are optical, electro-optical, radar, and multispectral. USIS 95
infrared distance measurement A distance determined by measuring the phase delay of modulation signals on a light beam (infrared) traveling at a known velocity between a distance meter and reflector. HDBK-850
infrared film (JCS) Film carrying an emulsion especially sensitive to""near-infrared"" Used to photograph through haze, because of the penetrating power of infrared light, and in camouflage detection to distinguish between living vegetation and dead vegetation or artificial green pigment. HDBK-850
infrared imagery That imagery produced as a result of sensing electromagnetic radiations emitted or reflected from a given target surface in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (approximately 0.78 to 1,000 microns). USIS 95
infrared linescanner A tactical thermal infrared imaging camera flown aboard RF-4C and F-14 TARPS. A film return system with no datalinking. USIS 95
infrared photography Photography employing an optical system and direct image recording on film sensitive to near-infrared wavelength (infrared film). Note: Not to be confused with infrared imagery. USIS 95
infrared, longwave That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging from 6 to 14 microns. USIS 95
infrared, midwave That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging from 2.5 to 6 microns. USIS 95
infrared, shortwave That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging from 1 to 2.5 microns. USIS 95
infrastructure Infrastructure is used with different contextual meanings. Infrastructure most generally relates to and has a hardware orientation but note that it is frequently more comprehensive and includes software and communications. Collectively, the structure must meet the performance requirements of and capacity for data and application requirements. Again note that just citing standards for designing an architecture or infrastructure does not include functional and mission area requirements for performance. Performance requirement metrics must be an inherent part of an overall infrastructure to provide performant interoperability and compatibility. It identifies the top-level design of communications, processing, and operating system software. It describes the performance characteristics needed to meet database and application requirements. It provides a geographic distribution of components to locations. The infrastructure architecture is defined by the service provider for these capabilities. It includes processors, operating systems, service software, and standards profiles that include network diagrams showing communication links with bandwidth, processor locations, and capacities to include hardware builds versus schedule and costs. [DoD 8020.1-M] TAFIM 3.0
inheritance The construction of a definition by incremental modification of other definitions. See interface and implementation inheritance. CORBA 2.2
inherited error The error in initial values used in a computation; especially the error introduced from the previous steps in a step-by-step integration. HDBK-850
Initial Graphic Exchange Specification (IGES) An interim standard format developed by the National Bureau of Standards (NIST) for exchanging graphics data between computer systems. IGES is the most widely used exchange format in the world. HDBK-850
initial monument A physical structure which marks the location of an initial point in the rectangular system of surveys. See also initial point. HDBK-850
Initial Operational Capability (IOC) 1. At the system level, IOC is the point at which some portion of the technical and operational specifications defined by the requirements documents have been achieved. The specific definition of IOC will vary for each system and would be negotiated between the PM, the User, and the O & M activity. 2. At the site level, IOC is the point at which the technical specifications of that portion of the system installed at a specific site meet the documented requirements, but some portion of testing and/or operational specifications remains to be accomplished. The specific definition of IOC is site specific and would be negotiated between the PM, the site manager, and the O & M activity. [DISA/D4] DISA CFS
Initial Phase Interpretation Report (IPIR) A national target report or a Department of Defense (DoD) imagery interpretation report that contains imagery derived information from first phase exploitation of aircraft or satellite imagery. USIS 2-1.1
initial point 1. That point from which any survey is initiated. Also called point of origin. 2. A point which is established under the rectangular system of surveys and from which is initiated the cadastral survey of the principal meridian and base line that controls the cadastral survey of the public lands within a given area. See also base line; initial monument; principal meridian. HDBK-850
inner orientation See interior orientation. HDBK-850
inner planets The four planets nearest the Sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. See also major planets; outer planets; asteroid. HDBK-850
Input Target Report A target report that contains an account or analysis of new imagery-derived information for the purpose of entering it into a data base. USIS 95
input/output In computer terms, this refers to a transfer of data between the central processing unit and peripheral devices. Every transfer is an output from one device and an input into another. USIS 95
inserted grouping (JCS) (radar) The inclusion of one area of homogeneous surface material in an area of different material. HDBK-850
inset (JCS) (cartography) A separate map positioned within the neatline of a larger map. Three forms are recognized: (1) all area geographically outside a sheet but included therein for convenience of publication, usually at the same scale; (2) a portion of the map or chart at an enlarged scale; (3) a smaller scale map or chart of surrounding areas included for location purposes. HDBK-850
Installation Identification Elements Attributes that comprise all that is known about an installation. The five primary data elements defining an installation are: Basic Encyclopedia number, name, country code, Information Data Handling System code, and target latitude/longitude. USIS 95
instance A named value. CEN/TC 287
instance An object is an instance of an interface if it provides the operations, signatures and semantics specified by that interface. An object is an instance of an implementation if its behavior is provided by that implementation. CORBA 2.2
instant A zero dimensional element of time, equivalent to a point in space. ISO/TC 211
Instantaneous Field of View (IFOV) The smallest solid angle resolvable by a scanner when expressed in radians. When expressed in feet, it is the projected area of the detector image on the ground and is a measure of the resolution of a scanner or similar remote sensor with discrete samples. HDBK-850
instantaneous reading tape A survey tape on which the foot mark is repeated at each subdivision. Thus, a tape divided into tenths of a foot would have the foot mark imprinted at each tenth of a foot division. HDBK-850
instantiation of an object template An object produced from a given object template and other necessary information. This object exhibits the features specified in the object template. RM-ODP
Institute for Telecommunication Sciences (ITS) ITS is the research and engineering branch of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), which is part of the United States Department of Commerce (DoC). ITS Web Site
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) The IEEE is the world's largest technical professional society. The technical objectives of the IEEE focus on advancing the theory and practice of electrical, electronics and computer engineering and computer science. The IEEE is a world leader in the development and dissemination of voluntary, consensus-based industry standards involving today's leading-edge electrotechnology. The IEEE supports international standardization and encourages the development of globally acceptable standards. The IEEE is headquartered in Piscataway, NJ. IEEE Web Site
instrument adjustment The process of mechanical manipulation of the relation of component parts of an instrument in order to obtain the highest practicable precision and facility in the designed use of the instrument. HDBK-850
instrument approach chart An aeronautical chart designed for use under instrument flight conditions, for making instrument approach and letdown to contact flight conditions in the vicinity of an airfield. HDBK-850
instrument error A systematic error resulting from imperfections in, or faulty adjustment of, instruments or devices used. Also called calibration error. HDBK-850
instrument parallax 1. A change in the apparent position of an object with respect to the reference marks of an instrument which is caused by imperfect adjustment of the instrument. Also called optical parallax. 2. Parallax caused by a change in the position of the observer. Also called personal parallax. HDBK-850
instrument phototriangulation See stereotriangulation. HDBK-850
instrument station See setup, definition 1. HDBK-850
Integrated C4I Architectures Requirements Information System (ICARIS) The ICARIS is a tool for defining, assessing, and managing communications architectures. ICARIS-managed information is stored in a relational database (Sybase) and accessed through an industry-standard graphical interface. ICARIS architectures consist of intelligence graphics, force structures, and databases containing organizations and unit locations, primary dissemination capabilities, intelligence node capabilities and requirements, and node-path connectivity. They graphically show the integration of equipment and communications capabilities with the units that require or can transmit intelligence information. Architectures are developed by intelligence and communication planners to satisfy existing or contingency operations requirements for sending and/or receiving of intelligence. See also Joint C4ISR Architecture Planning/Analysis System (JCAPS). AFRL Web Site
Integrated Data base Part of the DIA data base; associated with the Military Intelligence Integrated Data System (MIIDS). USIS 95
Integrated Deployable Processing System A softcopy workstation used by the 607th Air Intelligence Squadron at Osan Air Base, Korea (USFK) for the exploitation of ASARS II imagery. USIS 95
Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) is defined as a composite of all the support considerations necessary to assure the effective and economical support of a system during its life cycle. The ILS is an integral part of all other aspects of system acquisition and operation. It is divided into ten specific elements as follows: maintenance planning; manpower and personnel; supply support; support equipment; technical data; training and training support; computer resources support; facilities; packaging, handling, storage, and transportation; and design influence. [DISA/D4] DISA CFS
Integrated Management Provides capabilities to plan, organize, coordinate, control, and direct activities end-to-end through the geospatail and imagery information cycle. It applies geographically and organizationally across the Commands, agencies, and Services, and vertically from tactical through national and civil resources. It allows: 1. Any user to submit a nomination that results in a tasking to obtain feedback and status information and to query to determine the status of the request or product; and 2. United States Imagery and Geospatial Information System (USIGS) organizations to share information to minimize user and manager data entry, and optimize system performance and delivery of products to users. It provides a consistent view of activities across the enterprise, including status information used in conjunction with system control capabilities for workload leveling and performance enhancement of the overall USIGS. USIS 95
Integrated Priority List A list of a combatant commander's highest priority requirements, prioritized across Service and functional lines, defining shortfalls in key programs that, in the judgment of the combatant commander, adversely affect the capability of the combatant commande''s forces to accomplish their assigned mission. The integrated priority list provides the combatant commander's recommendations for programming funds in the Planning, Programming, and Budgeting System process. USIS 95
Integrated Product Team (IPT) An IPT is composed of representatives from all appropriate functional disciplines working together with a Team Leader to build successful and balanced programs, identify and resolve issues, and make sound and timely recommendations to facilitate decision-making. There are three types of IPTs: Overarching IPTs focus on strategic guidance, program assessment, and issue resolution. Working Level IPTs identify and resolve program issues, determine program status, and seek opportunities for acquisition reform. Program IPTs focus on program execution, and may include representatives from both Government, and after contract award, industry. DoDD 5000.1
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) An integrated digital network in which the same time-division switches and digital transmission paths are used to establish connections for different services. Note 1: ISDN services include telephone, data, electronic mail, and facsimile. Note 2: The method used to accomplish a connection is often specified: for example, switched connection, nonswitched connection, exchange connection, ISDN connection. See also Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (B-ISDN). FED STD 1037C
integrated station instrument An instrument combining horizontal and vertical angles with electronic distance measurement and programmed computer capability in a single piece of hardware. HDBK-850
Integrated Systems Imagery Simulation A program used to show flows/throughputs of an imagery organization. USIS 95
Integrated Tactical/ Strategic Data Networking (ITSDN) Program The program to integrate the tactical and strategic data networks to include the Army TPN, the Air Force TASDAC, and DISA' s NIPRNET and SIPRNET. It will provide connectivity for GCCS, DMS, and Force XXI, at least in the near term. DII MP
integration The process of combining components, usually hardware and software, into a new, larger component to achieve some architectural requirement. Integration requires resolution of compatibility issues between components that are to be interconnected. Integration attempts to allow sharing of a common resource (such as data) without the need for intermediate translations from one format to another. Note that the COE is a technique for achieving integration that ensures interoperability. DII COE IRTS
integration (JCS) 1. A stage in the intelligence cycle in which a pattern is formed through the selection and combination of evaluated information. 2. (photography) A process by which the average radar picture seen on several scans of the time base may be obtained on a print, or the process by which several photographic images are combined into a single image. HDBK-850
integration The process of combining software components, hardware components, or both into an overall system. [IEEE 610.12] IEEE 610-1990
integration Two or more software applications that must run on the same physical processor(s) and under the same operating system. JTA 2.0
Integration Manager (IM) Ims are assigned to DISA/D7 and provide technical support to OSD Principal Staff Assistants and to their designated FAPMs. [DOD 8020.1-M.] DISA CFS
integrity In messaging, the assurance that a message or other data has not been altered or destroyed in an unauthorized manner. [DISA/D2] DISA CFS
Intelink An Integrated Intelligence Information Service network of shared data bases that provide uniform methods for exchanging intelligence among the providers and users of intelligence. USIS 95
intelligence 1. product resulting from the collection, processing, integration, analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of available information concerning foreign countries or areas. 2. Information and knowledge about an adversary obtained through observation, investigation, analysis, or understanding. JPUB 1-02
Intelligence Analysis System The Marine's system for supporting intelligence functions at the component level. It provides most of the general processing and analysis for multisource intelligence support. USIS 95
Intelligence Community (IC) Refers to the United States Government agencies and organizations and activities identified in Section 3 of the National Security Act of 1947, and Section 3.4(f) (1 through 6) of Executive Order 12333. USIS 95
Intelligence Correlation Module A software program that provides a capability to correlate, analyze, store, display, and disseminate multisource intelligence information derived from near-real-time and other collection systems or sources. USIS 95
intelligence cycle The process by which information is converted into intelligence and made available to users. The US intelligence cycle has the following five steps: planning and direction; collection; processing; production; and dissemination. JPUB 2-0
Intelligence Data Handling System (IDHS) Code A five-character numeric value used to define the functional category of the target/installation. Value range is 10000 to 99999. USIS 95
Intelligence Data Handling Systems Information systems that process and manipulate raw information and intelligence data as required. They are characterized by the application of general purpose computers, peripheral equipment, and automated storage and retrieval equipment for documents and photographs. While automation is a distinguishing characteristic of intelligence data handling systems, individual system components may be either automated or manually operated. USIS 95
intelligence discipline Several intelligence disciplines may require consideration by the IMRAD Council to coordinate on cooperative Research and Development efforts. These disciplines include, but are not necessarily limited to the following; Production; Imagery Intelligence (IMINT); Signals Intelligence (SIGINT); Measurements and Signatures Intelligence (MASINT) Collection and Processing; Human Source (HUMINT) Collection and Processing; Multidisciplinary Collection and Processing. USIS 95
intelligence information Information of potential intelligence value. USIS 95
intelligence issue A basic intelligence area of interest, such as "Indications and Warning" or "Terrorism" All image collection and exploitation must support at least one intelligence issue. Target sets are organized under intelligence issues. Also called intelligence problem (IP). USIS 95
intelligence need Information required to support a future judgment or decision regarding a United States national interest. USIS 95
intelligence performance assessment Measurement of the level of satisfaction of intelligence needs. USIS 95
intelligence preparation of the battlespace An analytical methodology employed to reduce uncertainties concerning the enemy, environment, and terrain for all types of operations. IPB builds an extensive data base for each potential area in which a unit may be required to operate. The data base is then analyzed in detail to determine the impact of the enemy, environment, and terrain on operations and presents it in graphic form. IPB is a continuing process. Also known as intelligence preparation of the battlefield. USIS 95
intelligence problem (IP) A statement of an intelligence issue or requirement that directly concerns military and/or civilian policy and decision making. The IP is one of the elements that comprise the formal structure for organizing and managing national imagery collection, exploitation, and reporting requirements. USIS 2-1.1
intelligence problem (IP) topic report A standard national electronic report that relates target report data residing in the Installation Data File to a specific intelligence problem. USIS 2-1.1
intelligence problem identifier code A 10-character code used to identify the intelligence problem (i.e., the geographic region and country code) and to define the intelligence problem to a level of specificity (i.e., category, subcategory, topic, subtopic, element, and subelement). USIS 95
intelligence report A specific report of information, usually on a single item, made at any level of command in tactical operations and disseminated as rapidly as possible in keeping with the timeliness of the information. USIS 95
intelligence reporting The preparation and conveyance of information by any means. More commonly, the term is restricted to reports as they are prepared by the collector and as they are transmitted by him to his headquarters and by this component of the intelligence structure to one or more intelligence-producing components. Thus, even in this limited sense, reporting embraces both collection and dissemination. The term is applied to normal and special intelligence reports. USIS 95
Intelligence Support Plan An Air Force program designed to support weapon systems. USIS 95
Intelligence Support Processor Hosts NORAD/USSPACECOM's primary data base supporting all-source analysts. Used as a research source and repository for the command's own intelligence reports. USIS 95
Intelligence Support to Operations and Plans (ISTOP) An automated system for the presentation and analysis of multisource data, including textual imagery, signals, and human-source data, imagery, and MC&G products. The system can overlay maps, imagery, and graphics overlays may be introduced. ISTOP can also interface with/accept input from a variety of systems such as Constant Source, ICON/PICON, Sentinel Byte, and various data base systems such as MIIDS/IDB. ISTOP can produce color prints of map displays and/target imagery for mission briefings, target folders and operational mission support, and can perform limited desktop publishing functions. ISTOP is an Air Force Reserve initiative and is scheduled to be fielded with AF Reserve units in the 1994-97 timeframe (funding permitting). USIS 95
Intelligence Systems Group (ISG) The ISG is located at Kelly AFB, TX; subordinate to the Air Intelligence Agency; provides all-source intelligence support to Air Staff and combatant commands. USIS 95
intelligence-related activities 1. Those activities outside the consolidated defense intelligence program that: a. respond to operational commanders' tasking for time-sensitive information on foreign entities; b. respond to national intelligence community tasking of systems whose primary mission in support to operating forces; c. train personnel for intelligence duties; d. provide an intelligence reserve; or e. are devoted to research and development of intelligence or related capabilities. 2. Specifically excluded are programs that are so closely integrated with a weapon system that their primary function is to provide immediate-use targeting data. USIS 95
intensity of gravity The magnitude with which gravity acts, expressed in suitable units, usually as an acceleration, in gals; as a force, in dynes. HDBK-850
interaction point A location where there exists a set of interfaces. A location is a position in both space and time. RM-ODP
interactive The ability of a user to make decisions or selections which (can) alter the type and sequence of information or communication. Multimedia
interactive control Attribute describing the ability of a program and a user to interface with each other during program execution. [HCI Style Guide] DISA CFS
Interactive Digital Image Manipulation System A system for imagery enhancement and multispectral analysis. USIS 95
interactive feature extraction Interactive feature data extraction provides the cartographer with the capability to extract cartographic and radar significant feature data, including geomorphic feature data. It also provides the capability to fill and edit automatically collected elevation data for those assignments that require terrain elevation data in addition to the feature data. USIS 95
interactive model A model that requires human participation. Syn: human-in-the-loop. ("A Glossary of Modeling and Simulation Terms for Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS)," August, 1995) JTA 2.0
interactive terrain extraction The independent review of automated Terrain Extraction status and data. Includes editing of data by the cartographer. USIS 95
intercardinal point Any of the four directions midway between the cardinal points; northeast, southeast, southwest, or northwest. HDBK-850
interceptor An engineering object in a channel located at a boundary between domains. An interceptor performs checks to enforce or monitor policies on permitted interactions between engineering objects in different domains. Interceptors perform transformations to mask differences in interpretation of data by engineering objects in different domains. An inter-subnetwork relay is an example of an interceptor, as are gateways and bridges. RM-ODP
interface A listing of the operations and attributes that an object provides. This includes the signatures of the operations, and the types of the attributes. An interface definition ideally includes the semantics as well. An object satisfies an interface if it can be specified as the target object in each potential request described by the interface. CORBA 2.2
interface A connecting link or interrelationship between two systems, two devices, two applications, or the user and an application, device, or system. In the OSI Reference Model, it is the boundary between adjacent layers. DISA CFS
interface 1. A shared boundary across which information is passed. 2. A hardware or software component that connects two or more components for the purpose of passing information from one to the other. 3. To connect two or more components for the purpose of passing information from one to the other. 4. To serve as a connecting or connected component as in (2). [IEEE 610.12] IEEE 610-1990
interface A shared boundary between two functional entities. A standard specifies the services in terms of the functional characteristics and behavior observed at the interface. The standard is a contract in the sense that it documents a mutual obligation between the service user and provider and assures stable definition of that obligation. IEEE P1003.0
interface Shared boundary between two functional units, defined by functional characteristics, common physical interconnection characteristics, and other characteristics, as appropriate. NOTE - The concept involves the specification of the connection of two devices having different functions. ISO/TC 211
interface An abstraction of part of the behavior of an object. An interface comprises a set of interactions and a set of constraints. RM-ODP
interface control document (ICD) A document that constitutes a technical automated data exchange agreement between organizations/activities. It defines system-to-system interface requirements to include content and format of data exchanges, means of transmission, and periodicity. Defines the data exchanged between two segments. USIS 95
interface control element A specific interface component contained in an interface control document. USIS 95
interface inheritance The construction of an interface by incremental modification of other interfaces. The IDL language provides interface inheritance. CORBA 2.2
interface object An object that serves to describe an interface. Interface objects reside in an interface repository. CORBA 2.2
Interface Processor for Imagery Exchange Part of the Intratheater Imagery Transmission System (IITS) that allows the Tactical Digital Facsimile (TDF) machine to disseminate imagery simultaneously to several other TDFs. USIS 95
interface repository A storage place for interface information. CORBA 2.2
interface specification A mechanism used in the EXPRESS language for relating two schemas written in that language to each other. CEN/TC 287
interface type A type satisfied by any object that satisfies a particular interface. CORBA 2.2
interfacing The process of two components or systems exchanging information by first translating the information into an intermediate, agreed-upon format. For example, track information is transmitted between FOTC participants by generation of an OTH-GOLD message on the sending system, and parsing the message on the receiving system. If the two systems were truly integrated, the translation to/from OTH-GOLD would not be required. Note that standards are the technique for specifying how interfacing can be accomplished. DII COE IRTS
interferometer An apparatus used to produce and measure interference from two or more coherent wave trains from the same source. Used to measure wavelengths, to measure angular width of sources, to determine the angular position of sources (as in satellite tracking), and for other purposes. See also radio interferometer. HDBK-850
Interim Authority To Operate (IATO) Authority to field new systems or capabilities for a limited time, with a limited number of platforms to support developmental efforts, demonstrations, exercises, or operational use. The decision to grant an IATO is based on the sponsoring component's initial laboratory test results and the assessed impact, if any, on the operational networks to be employed. DODI 4630.8
Interim Terrain Data (ITD) A digital product consisting of contiguous data sets comprised of attributed and unsymbolized feature information in six thematic files (Surface Configuration, Vegetation, Surface Materials, Surface Drainage, Transportation, and Obstacles) and a seventh file of Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) Level I. The data content is equivalent to the content of either Tactical Terrain Analysis Data Bases (TTADBs) or Planning Terrain Analysis Data Bases (PTADBs). An enhanced transportation file consisting of attributed roads (all-weather through cart track), bridges, and tunnels was added to the data set. See Planning Terrain Analysis Data Base; Tactical Terrain Analysis Data Base. HDBK-850
interior angle traverse In surveying, a closed traverse wherein distances are measured and only interior angle measurements are used. HDBK-850
interior area An area with its boundary excluded. ISO/TC 211
interior orientation The determining (analytically or in a photogrammetric instrument) of the interior perspective of the photograph as it was at the instant of exposure. Elements of interior orientation are the calibrated focal length, location of the calibrated principal point, and the calibrated lens distortion. Also called inner orientation. HDBK-850
interior perspective center See perspective center. HDBK-850
interior to a curve That area lying toward the concave side of a curve and included within the area of the circle of which the curve is a part of the circumference. HDBK-850
interlock Mechanism to connect two or more processes within a computing system to ensure that no one part of a hardware or software system can be operated independently. [HCI Style Guide] DISA CFS
interlocking angle In tilt analysis of oblique photographs, the angle between the optical axes of the vertical and oblique cameras. The dihedral angle between the planes of the vertical and oblique photographs. HDBK-850
intermediary A service that provides functions by which to interconnect, adapt and facilitate services offered by other parties, components or environments. Common forms of intermediaries include agent, broker, mediator and trader services. OpenGIS Guide
intermediate contour line A contour line drawn between index contours. Depending on the contour interval, there are three or four intermediate contours between the index contours. HDBK-850
Intermediate Interoperability {DII COE} A level of interoperability characterized by a client/server environment with standardized interfaces and distributed computing services that allow for exchange of heterogeneous data (e.g., maps with overlays, annotated images), and advanced collaboration. This level of interoperability is achievable with implementation of""cut and past"" between applications, through World-Wide-Web technology, and through basic use of DII COE features. DII COE IRTS
intermediate node A connected node coincident with an edge without terminating it. ISO/TC 211
intermediate orbit A central force orbit that is tangent to the real orbit at some point. A fictitious satellite traveling in the intermediate orbit would have the same position, but not the same velocity, as the real satellite at the point of tangency. HDBK-850
internal data structure The organization within a system of data and particularly, the reference linkages among data elements. See also Data structure. HDBK-850
International Atomic Time (TAI) (DOD) The time reference scale established by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) on the basis of atomic clock readings from various laboratories around the world. JPUB 1-02
international date line (JCS) The line coinciding approximately with the antemeridian of Greenwich, modified to avoid certain habitable land. In crossing this line there is a date change of one day. Also called date line. HDBK-850
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Founded in 1906, the IEC is the world organization that prepares and publishes international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies. The membership consists of more than 50 participating countries, including all the world's major trading nations and a growing number of industrializing countries. The IEC's mission is to promote, through its members, international cooperation on all questions of electrotechnical standardization and related matters, such as the assessment of conformity to standards, in the fields of electricity, electronics and related technologies. The Central Office of the IEC is located in Geneva, Switzerland. IEC Web Site
international ellipsoid A reference ellipsoid defined by Hayford in 1924 with semimajor axis(a) as 6,378,388.0 meters, and flattening of 1/297. HDBK-850
international gravity formula A development of the formula for theoretical gravity, based on the assumptions that the spheroid of reference is an exact ellipsoid of revolution having the dimensions of the international ellipsoid of reference (Madrid, 1924), rotating about its minor axis once in a sidereal day; that the surface of the ellipsoid is a level surface; and that gravity at the Equator equals 978.049 gals. HDBK-850
International Gravity Standardization Net 1971 (IGSN 71) An adjusted worldwide network of gravity measurements consisting of absolute, pendulum, and gravimeter observations. The IGSN 71 was approved and adopted by the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics in 1971, and replaces the Potsdam datum as the international gravity standard. HDBK-850
International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) The IHO is an intergovernmental consultative and technical organization working to support the safety of navigation and the protection of the marine environment. The object of the Organization is to bring about the coordination of the activities of national hydrographic offices; the greatest possible uniformity in nautical charts and documents; the adoption of reliable and efficient methods of carrying out and exploiting hydrographic surveys; the development of the sciences in the field of hydrography and the techniques employed in descriptive oceanography. The IHO is headquartered at the International Hydrographic Bureau in the Principality of Monaco. IHO Web Site
International Imaging Systems A commercial softcopy system used for imagery analysis at the Missile and Space Intelligence Center (MSIC) to resolve problems and issues generated during analysis of hardcopy imagery. USIS 95
international low water (ILW) A plane of reference below mean sea level; half the range between mean lower low water and mean higher high water multiplied by 1.5. HDBK-850
International Maritime Organization (IMO) The IMO is the United Nations' specialized agency responsible for improving maritime safety and preventing pollution from ships. The purposes of the IMO are to provide machinery for co­operation among Governments in the field of governmental regulation and practices relating to technical matters of all kinds affecting shipping engaged in international trade; to encourage and facilitate the general adoption of the highest practicable standards in matters concerning maritime safety, efficiency of navigation and prevention and control of marine pollution from ships. IMO is headquartered in London, UK. IMO Web Site
International Maritime Satellite Four second-generation satellites that support maritime missions. USIS 95
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) The ISO is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies from some 100 countries, one from each country. ISO is a non-governmental organization established in 1947. The mission of ISO is to promote the development of standardization and related activities in the world with a view to facilitating the international exchange of goods and services, and to developing cooperation in the spheres of intellectual, scientific, technological and economic activity. ISO's work results in international agreements which are published as International Standards. The ISO is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. ISO Web Site
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee 211 (ISO/TC 211) TC 211 is the ISO's Geographic Information/Geomatics technical committee. Its scope is standardization in the field of digital geographic information. This work aims to establish a structured set of standards for information concerning objects or phenomena that are directly or indirectly associated with a location relative to the Earth. ISO Web Site
International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) The ISPRS is a non-governmental organization devoted to the development of international cooperation for the advancement of photogrammetry and remote sensing and their applications. Headquarters of the ISPRS for the period 1996-2000 is the office of the Secretary General in Sydney, Australia. ISPRS Web Site
International Standard (IS) Agreed international standard as voted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). TAFIM 3.0
International Standards Organization See International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ISO Web Site
international system of units (SI) The practical international metric system of units adopted by the Eleventh General Conference of Weights and Measures in 1960. HDBK-850
International Telecommunication Union (ITU) The ITU is an international organization within which governments and the private sector coordinate global telecom networks and services. The ITU goal is to foster and facilitate the global development of telecommunications for the universal benefit of mankind, through the rule of law, mutual consent and cooperative action. To provide the products and services required by the global telecommunications community that are best provided by an international organization. The ITU consists of three sectors: Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R); Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T); and Telecommunication Development Sector (ITU-D). The ITU is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. ITU Web Site
International Telecommunications Satellite The dominant carrier of all international communications. It handles about two-thirds of all transoceanic traffic. USIS 95
International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT) Now called the International Telecommunications Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T). See International Telecommunications Union (ITU). ITU Web Site
internationalization The process of designing and developing an implementation with a set of features, functions, and options intended to satisfy a variety of cultural environments. (See also localization) IEEE P1003.0
Internet A global web connecting more than a million computers. Currently, the Internet has more than 50 million users worldwide, and that number is growing rapidly. More than 100 countries are linked into exchanges of data, news and opinions. Unlike online services, which are centrally controlled, the Internet is decentralized by design. Each Internet computer, called a host, is independent. Its operators can choose which Internet services to provide to its local users and which local services to make available to the global Internet community. Remarkably, this anarchy by design works exceedingly well. There are a variety of ways to access the Internet. Most online services, such as America Online, offer access to some Internet services. It is also possible to gain access through a commercial Internet Service Provider (ISP). PC Webopaedia
Internet Architecture Board (IAB) The IAB is a technical advisory group of the Internet Society (ISOC). The IAB provides oversight of the architecture for the protocols and procedures used by the Internet. The IAB provides oversight of the process used to create Internet Standards. The IAB serves as an appeal board for complaints of improper execution of the standards process. The IAB acts as representative of the interests of the ISOC in liaison relationships with other organizations concerned with standards and other technical and organizational issues relevant to the world-wide Internet. The IAB acts as a source of advice and guidance to the Board of Trustees and Officers of the ISOC concerning technical, architectural, procedural, and (where appropriate) policy matters pertaining to the Internet and its enabling technologies. IAB Web Site
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) The IANA is the central coordinator for the assignment of unique parameter values for Internet protocols. The IANA is chartered by the Internet Society (ISOC) and the Federal Network Council (FNC) to act as the clearinghouse to assign and coordinate the use of numerous Internet protocol parameters. The IANA is based at the Univeristy of Southern California's Information Sciences Institute. IANA Web Site
Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG) The IESG is responsible for technical management of IETF activities and the Internet standards process. As part of the ISOC, it administers the process according to the rules and procedures which have been ratified by the ISOC Trustees. The IESG is directly responsible for the actions associated with entry into and movement along the Internet "standards track," including final approval of specifications as Internet Standards. IETF Web Site
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) The IETF is a large open international community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers concerned with the evolution of the Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet. The IETF working groups are grouped into areas, and managed by Area Directors, or Ads. The Ads are members of the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Providing architectural oversight is the Internet Architecture Board (IAB); the IAB also adjudicates appeals when someone complains that the IESG has failed. The IAB and IESG are chartered by the Internet Society (ISOC) for these purposes. The General Area Director also serves as the chair of the IESG and of the IETF, and is an ex-officio member of the IAB. IETF Web Site
Internet Protocol (IP) Standard that allows dissimilar hosts to connect to each other through the DDN. [DISA/D2] DISA CFS
Internet Society (ISOC) The ISOC is a non-governmental International organization for global cooperation and coordination for the Internet and its internetworking technologies and applications. The Society's individual and organizational members are bound by a common stake in maintaining the viability and global scaling of the Internet. They comprise the companies, government agencies, and foundations that have created the Internet and its technologies as well as innovative new entrepreneurial organizations contributing to maintain that dynamic. The Internet Society acts not only as a global clearinghouse for Internet information and education but also as a facilitator and coordinator of Internet-related initiatives around the world. The ISOC is headquartered in Reston, VA. ISOC Web Site
Internetwork A network, such as the DDN, that connects other networks. [DISA/D2] DISA CFS
interocular distance (JCS) The distance between the centers of rotation of the eyeballs of an individual or between the oculars of optical instruments. Also called eye base; interpupillary distance. HDBK-850
interoperability {DII COE} The ability of two or more systems or components to exchange and use information (IEEE STD 610.12). This definition is extended in the context of a COE to include levels of interoperability, and relate interoperability to interfacing (lowest, least desirable level) versus true integration (highest, most desirable level). DII COE IRTS
interoperability Consistency between different MC&G software and data sets in terms of accuracy, data structure, feature coding, geo-referencing systems, datums, spatial resolutions, and precision, which allow them to be used on different kinds of equipment systems. HDBK-850
interoperability The ability of the systems, units, or forces to provide and receive services from other systems, units, or forces, and to use the services so interchanged to enable them to operate effectively together. The conditions achieved among communications-electronics systems or items of communications-electronics equipment when information or services can be exchanged directly and satisfactorily between them and/or their users. JPUB 1-02
interoperability The ability for a system or components of a system to provide information portability and interapplication, cooperative process control. OpenGIS Guide
interoperability 1. The ability of two or more systems or components to exchange and use information. 2. The ability of systems to provide and receive services from other systems and to use the services so interchanged to enable them to operate effectively together. TOGAF 3
interoperability {CORBA} The ability for two or more ORBs to cooperate to deliver requests to the proper object. Interoperating ORBs appear to a client to be a single ORB. CORBA 2.2
interoperability levels See Levels of Information System Interoperability (LISI).   C4ISR AF
interoperability testing 1. Procedures for ensuring that a computer product or system can communicate in a multivendor neetwork. [TAFIM 3.0, vol. 4]. 2. Verification of the degree to which the interface standards support a user's ability to successfully prepare, exchange, interpret, and use common data items and messages. [JITC Dictionary] DISA CFS
interpolate To determine intermediate values between given fixed values. As applied to logical contouring, to interpolate is to ratio vertical distances between given spot elevations. HDBK-850
interpretability The information potential of an image for intelligence purposes. USIS 95
interpretation The extraction from imagery of information contributing to the synthesized body of knowledge that constitutes intelligence. USIS 95
interpreter A protocol converter that restructures packets of information so they can pass between networks that use different standards (e.g., between X.400 and SMTP networks). Interpreters perform appropriate protocol and format conversion to interconnect heterogeneous networks at the application layer. [DISA/D2] DISA CFS
interpupillary distance See interocular distance. HDBK-850
interrogation Transmission of a radio signal or combination of signals intended to trigger a transponder or group of transponders. HDBK-850
interrogator 1. A radar set or other electronic device that transmits an interrogation. 2. An interrogator responsor or the transmitting component of an interrogator responsor. HDBK-850
interrogator-responsor A radio transmitter and receiver combined to interrogate a transponder and display the resulting replies. Also called challenger. See also interrogator. HDBK-850
interrupted map projection A projection having several standard meridians, each centered over a continent, and with lobate-shaped sections of the projection plotted from each standard meridian. The projection is broken in the ocean areas between the continents, thus reducing the linear scale discrepancies and the overall shape distortion, especially toward the margins, while retaining the equal area property. HDBK-850
intersected point See intersection station. HDBK-850
intersection 1. (digital mapping) The coexistence of end points at a specific geographic location; the set of all objects common to two or more intersecting sets. 2. (surveying) The procedure of determining the horizontal position of an unoccupied point (intersection station) by direction observations from two or more known positions. 3. (photogrammetry) The procedure of determining the horizontal position of a point by intersecting lines of direction obtained photogrammetrically. The lines of direction may be obtained directly from vertical photographs or by graphic or mathematical rectification of tilted photographs. See also resection. HDBK-850
intersection station An object whose horizontal position is determined by observations from other survey stations, no observations being made at the object itself. Where the object is observed from only two stations, the position is termed a no-check position, as there is no proof that such observations are free from blunders. Intersection stations are either objects which would be difficult to occupy with an instrument, or survey signals whose positions can be determined with sufficient accuracy without being occupied. Also called intersected point. HDBK-850
interswitch trunk (IST) A single direct transmission channel, e.g., voice-frequency circuit, between switching nodes. FED STD 1037C
interval time scale A scale for the measurement of time which provides an origin and one or more standard intervals that are used to describe the position and length of a temporal primitive relative to the scale. ISO/TC 211
intervalometer A timing device for automatically operating at specified intervals certain equipment such as a camera shutter for the purpose of obtaining a desired end lap between successive photographs. HDBK-850
intervisibility Function which calculates area or line-of-sight which can be "seen" from a specific location or locations. Also termed viewshed modeling or viewshed mapping. HDBK-850
intervisibility test Any of the several tests used to determine the possible visibility along a sight line in a proposed survey net. Its purpose is to determine the existence of obstructions along a proposed line of sight from which tower and signal requirements may be developed. HDBK-850
interworking The exchange of meaningful information between computing elements (semantic integration), as opposed to interoperability, which provides syntactic integration among computing elements. JTA 2.0
Intra-theater Imagery Transmission System A facsimile-based digital imagery system that provides secondary imagery dissemination within a theater, primarily by tactical Air Force units. The system sends and receives hardcopy transmittals of images or text, to include handwritten materials, and has no visual display capabilities. USIS 95
Intratheater Intelligence Communications Network A DoD intelligence dissemination capability fielded in Europe. USIS 95
Invar An alloy of nickel and steel having a very low coefficient of thermal expansion. Invar is used in the construction of Jaderin wires (base-line measuring apparatus), subtense bars, precise leveling rods, tapes, and pendulums. See also Lovar. HDBK-850
Invar leveling rod See precise leveling rod. HDBK-850
Invar pendulum A quarter-meter pendulum made of Invar. HDBK-850
Invar scale A measuring bar made from Invar. Normally, one side is graduated in the metric system and the other side in the English system. HDBK-850
Invar tape Any survey tape made of Invar. HDBK-850
invariable pendulum A pendulum so designed and equipped with means of support that it can be used in only one position. HDBK-850
invariant A predicate that a specification requires to be true for the entire life time of a set of objects. RM-ODP
inventory Existing source materials, intermediate and final products identified by type of geographic coverage, and currency. HDBK-850
inventory survey A survey for the purpose of collecting and correlating engineering data of a particular type, or types, over a given area. An inventory survey may be recorded on a base map. HDBK-850
inverse See inverse position computation; transverse. HDBK-850
inverse chart See transverse chart. HDBK-850
inverse computation See inverse position computation. HDBK-850
inverse cylindrical orthomorphic chart See transverse Mercator chart. HDBK-850
inverse cylindrical orthomorphic map projection See transverse Mercator map projection. HDBK-850
inverse equator See transverse equator. HDBK-850
inverse latitude See transverse latitude. HDBK-850
inverse longitude See transverse longitude. HDBK-850
inverse Mercator chart See transverse Mercator chart. HDBK-850
inverse Mercator map projection See transverse Mercator map projection. HDBK-850
inverse meridian See transverse meridian. HDBK-850
inverse parallel See transverse parallel. HDBK-850
inverse position computation The derivation of the length, and the forward and back azimuths of a line by computation based on the known positions of the ends of the line. Also called inverse; inverse computation; inverse position problem. HDBK-850
inverse position problem See inverse position computation. HDBK-850
inverse rhumb line See transverse rhumb line. HDBK-850
Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) Provides a continuous-imaging capability through special techniques that generate true, two-dimensional radar images of a recognizable nature of any selected target. ISAR provides enhanced periscope detection, multiple target tracking of several dozen vessels, additional frequency agility to reduce susceptibility to countermeasures, and has the ability to provide better classification of ships. USIS 95
inversors (photography) Mechanical devices used to maintain correct conjugate distances and collinearity of negative, lens, and easel planes in autofocusing optical instruments, such as copy cameras and rectifiers. See also Carpentier inversor; Peaucellier Carpentier inversor; Peaucellier inversor; Pythagorean right angle inversor. HDBK-850
inverted image An image that appears upside down in relation to the object. HDBK-850
inverted stereo See pseudoscopic stereo. HDBK-850
inverting See transit, definition 3. HDBK-850
inverting telescope An instrument with the optics so arranged that the light rays entering the objective of the lens meet at the cross hairs and appear inverted when viewed through the eyepiece without altering the orientation of the image. See also erecting telescope. HDBK-850
ionosphere (JCS) That part of the atmosphere, extending from about 70 to 500 kilometers, in which ions and free electrons exist in sufficient quantities to reflect electromagnetic waves. See also atmosphere. HDBK-850
ionospheric correction The correction made to electromagnetic measurements between satellites and ground stations to compensate for the effect of the ionosphere. HDBK-850
irradiance Radiant flux incident per unit area. HDBK-850
irregular error See random error. HDBK-850
irregular line A complex line which cannot be easily described by a mathematical polynomial. HDBK-850
isanomal A line connecting points of equal variations from a normal value. HDBK-850
isentropic Of equal or constant entropy with respect to either space or time. HDBK-850
islands (digital mapping) Polygons which are completely enclosed within another polygon. HDBK-850
isobar A line along which the atmospheric pressure is, or is assumed to be, the same or constant. HDBK-850
isobaric chart A chart showing isobars. Also called constant pressure chart. HDBK-850
isobath See depth contour. HDBK-850
isocenter 1. (JCS) The point on a photograph intersected by the bisector of the angle between the plumb line and the photograph perpendicular. 2. The unique point common to the plane of a photograph, its principal plane, and the plane of an assumed truly vertical photograph taken from the same camera station and having an equal principal distance. 3. The point of intersection on a photograph of the principal line and the isometric parallel. The isocenter is significant because it is the center of the radiation for displacements of images due to tilt. HDBK-850
isocenter plot See isocenter triangulation. HDBK-850
isocenter triangulation Radial triangulation utilizing isocenters as radial centers. Also called isocenter plot. HDBK-850
isochrone A line on a chart connecting all points having the same time of occurrence of a particular phenomenon or of a particular value of a quantity. HDBK-850
isoclinal A line drawn on a map or chart joining points of equal magnetic dip. Also called isoclinic line. HDBK-850
isoclinic chart A chart of which the chief feature is a system of isoclinic lines, each for a different value of the magnetic inclination. HDBK-850
isoclinic line See isoclinal. HDBK-850
isodiff One of a series of lines on a map or chart connecting points of equal correction or difference in datum, especially useful in readjustment of surveys from one datum to another. See also isolat; isolong. HDBK-850
isodynamic line A line connecting points of equal magnitude of any force. HDBK-850
isogal A contour line of equal gravity values on the surface of the Earth. HDBK-850
isogonal A line drawn on a map or chart joining points of equal magnetic declination for a given time. Also called isogonic line. See also agonic line. HDBK-850
isogonic chart A chart of which the chief feature is a system of isogonic lines, each for a different value of the magnetic declination. HDBK-850
isogonic line A line drawn on a map or chart jining points of equal magnetic declination for a given time. The line connecting points of zero declination is the agonic line. Lines connecting points of equal annual change are isopors, and are depicted on Magnetic Variation charts for the current 5-year epoch. HDBK-850
isogram See isopleth. HDBK-850
isogriv A line on a map or chart which joins points of equal angular difference between grid north and magnetic north. HDBK-850
isogriv chart A chart with lines connecting points of equal grivation. HDBK-850
isolat An isodiff connecting points of equal latitude corrections. HDBK-850
isolated node A node not related to any edge. CEN/TC 287
isoline 1. A line representing the intersection of the plane of a vertical photograph with the plane of an overlapping oblique photograph. If the vertical photograph were tilt free, the isoline would be the isometric parallel of the oblique photograph. 2. A line along which values are, or are assumed to be, constant. HDBK-850
isolong An isodiff connecting points of equal longitude corrections. HDBK-850
isomagnetic chart A chart showing the configuration of the Eart''s magnetic field by isogonic, isoclinic, or isodynamic lines. HDBK-850
isometric (conformal) latitude An auxiliary latitude used in the conformal mapping of the spheroid on a sphere. By transforming geographic latitudes on the spheroid into isometric latitudes on a sphere, a conformal map projection (the Mercator) may be calculated, using spherical formulas, for the plotting of geographic data. HDBK-850
isometric parallel The intersecting line between the plane of a photograph and a horizontal plane having an equal perpendicular distance from the same perspective center. HDBK-850
isoperimetric curve A line on a map projection along which there is no variation from exact scale. There are two isoperimetric curves passing through every point on an equal-area map projection. This characteristic gives that class of projections some preference for engineering maps. HDBK-850
isopleth A line of equal or constant value of a given quantity, with respect to either space or time. Also called isogram. HDBK-850
isopor A line found on magnetic charts showing points of equal annual change. Also called magnetic isoporic line. HDBK-850
isoporic chart A chart with lines connecting points of equal magnetic annual change. HDBK-850
isopycnic A line connecting points of equal density, particularly of ocean water and atmosphere. HDBK-850
isoradial A radial from the isocenter. HDBK-850
isostasy A condition of approximate equilibrium in the outer part of the Earth, such that the gravitational effect of masses extending above the surface of the geoid in continental areas is approximately counterbalanced by a deficiency of density in the material beneath those masses, while the effect of deficiency of density in ocean waters is counterbalanced by an excess of density in the material under the oceans. See also depth of isostatic compensation; Hayford-Bowie method of isostatic reduction; Hayford-Bullard (or Bullard) method of isostatic reduction; isostatic adjustment; isostatic compensation; isostatic correction; Pratt-Hayford theory of isostasy. HDBK-850
isostatic adjustment The natural process by which the crust of the Earth adjusts to restore or maintain its state of equilibrium. See also isostasy. HDBK-850
isostatic anomaly The difference between an observed value of gravity and a theoretical value at the point of observation which has been corrected for elevation of the station above the geoid, and for the effect of topography over the whole Earth, and for its isostatic compensation. HDBK-850
isostatic compensation The departure from normal density of material in the lower part of a column of the Earth's crust which balances (compensates) land masses (topography) above sea level and deficiency of mass in ocean waters, and which produces the condition of approximate equilibrium of Earth's crust. See also isostasy; topographic deflection. HDBK-850
isostatic correction The adjustment made to values of gravity or to deflections of the vertical observed at a point to take account of the assumed mass deficiency under topographic features for which a topographic correction is also made. HDBK-850
isostatic geoid An ideal geoid derived from the spheroid of reference by the application of computed values of the deflection of the vertical which depend upon the topography and isostatic compensation. HDBK-850
isostere A line connecting points of equal atmospheric density. HDBK-850
isotimic Pertaining to a quality which has equal value in space at a particular time. HDBK-850
item A unit to be inspected in a data set for computing data quality metric values. NOTE - It can be any part of a data set, such as feature(s), feature type(s), feature relation(s), feature relation type(s), attribute(s), attribute type(s) or their combinations. ISO/TC 211
Item Management Item Management is that portion of the life-cycle management pertaining to specific items of hardware and the associated spares and repair parts. It is normally done by a Military Department but may also be done by a contractor. [DISA/D4] DISA CFS
Item Manager The commercial or organic activity which is designated as the Primary supply source for an item of equipment. The item manager purchases sufficient stock of the end item and the many repair parts to assure that all demands (requests) for parts are met promptly and correctly. The item manager monitors the level of serviceable and unserviceable parts on hand in the various depots (government or contractor) and is responsible for assuring that the unserviceable parts are repaired and returned to stock. At the end of the item's service life expectancy, the item manager classifies the excess equipment and parts and issues disposal instructions. [DISA/D4] DISA CFS
ITSG base service areas (BSAs) BSAs define functionality within the OSE. They also serve as logical placeholder for groupings of standards that share similar attributes of functionality. Each BSA contains a definition, approximated to the collection of standards contained within it. Each BSA parallels an industry accepted information technology "functional" area at a broad system service level. BSA definitions serve to map functional system support software requirements to specific standards through matching the BSA definition to the standards within. BSA definitions are tailored for human comprehension, not to meet a requirement for technical formalism of the OSE. ITSG Vol. 1

Last Updated by Mark Owens 17 February 1999.