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Term Definition/Description Source
macro Executable file that stores a series of commands and keystrokes to be used later. [HCI Style Guide] DISA CFS
magazine (aerial camera) A component in the aerial camera system. It serves to hold the exposed and unexposed film and includes the film drive mechanism and film flattening device (platen). HDBK-850
magenta contact screen A contact film screen composed of magenta dyed dots of variable density used for making halftone negatives. HDBK-850
magnetic amplitude Amplitude relative to magnetic east or west. See also amplitude. HDBK-850
magnetic annual change The amount of magnetic secular change undergone in 1 year. Also called annual change; annual magnetic change; annual rate; annual rate of change. See also magnetic secular change. HDBK-850
magnetic annual variation The small regular fluctuation in the Earth's magnetism, having a period of 1 year. Also called annual magnetic variation. HDBK-850
magnetic anomaly See local magnetic anomaly. HDBK-850
Magnetic Anomoly Detection (MAD) Planning Charts (MADPC) Information on geomagnetic total-field intensities for selected ocean areas. Used as a planning base for Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) operations. Magnetic anomalies are color coded to assist in determining the effectiveness of Magnetic Anomaly Detection (MAD) equipment for a given area. HDBK-850
Magnetic Anomoly Detection (MAD) Operational Effectiveness Charts (MOE) Detailed information on geomagnetic field intensities in ocean areas. Used in planning tactical Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) operations. Magnetic anomalies are color coded to assist in setting sensitivity on Magnetic Anomaly Detection (MAD) equipment. HDBK-850
magnetic azimuth At the point of observation, the angle between the vertical plane through the observed object and the vertical plane in which a freely suspended, symmetrically magnetized needle, influenced by no transient artificial magnetic disturbance, will come to rest. Magnetic azimuth is generally reckoned from magnetic north (0░) clockwise through 360░. Such an azimuth should be marked as being magnetic, and the date of its applicability should be given. Magnetic azimuths are frequently measured with two Wild T-O theodolites in connection with compass rose surveys. HDBK-850
magnetic bearing 1. (navigation) Bearing relative to magnetic north; compass bearing corrected for deviation. 2. (surveying) Bearing relative to magnetic north or south, and stated in an east or west direction. The compasses included with the engineer transit and the 1-minute theodolite can be used to read magnetic bearings. Also called compass bearing. HDBK-850
magnetic chart A special purpose map depicting the distribution of one of the magnetic elements, as by isogonic lines, or of its secular change. HDBK-850
magnetic compass A compass depending upon the attraction of the magnetism of the Earth for its directive force. HDBK-850
magnetic daily variation The transient change in the Earth's magnetic field associated with the apparent daily motions of the Sun and Moon. In most places the solar daily variation follows approximately a consistent pattern, although with appreciable and unpredictable changes in form and amplitude. HDBK-850
magnetic declination (JCS) The angle between the magnetic and geographical meridians at any place, expressed in degrees east or west to indicate the direction of magnetic north from true north. In nautical and aeronautical navigation the term magnetic variation is used instead of magnetic declination, and the angle is termed variation of the compass or magnetic variation. Magnetic declination is not otherwise synonymous with magnetic variation, which refers to regular or irregular change with time of the magnetic declination, dip, or intensity. [Because of local attraction, the magnetic declination of two close points may differ by several degrees.] See also magnetic variation. HDBK-850
magnetic deviation See deviation. HDBK-850
magnetic dip See dip, definition 2. HDBK-850
magnetic dip circle An instrument for measuring the magnetic dip by the use of a needle and a graduated vertical circle. HDBK-850
magnetic dip needle 1. A dip circle or the needle thereof. Also called dip needle. 2. A needle arranged to disclose an intense local anomaly of the magnetic dip and useful in the recovery of lost iron survey monuments. HDBK-850
magnetic direction Horizontal direction expressed as angular distance from magnetic north. HDBK-850
magnetic disturbance 1. Irregular, large amplitude, rapid time changes of the Earth's magnetic field which occur at approximately the same time all over the Earth. Also called magnetic storm. 2. Sometimes used to describe spatial changes in the Earth's magnetic field. See also local magnetic anomaly. HDBK-850
magnetic diurnal variation 1. The daily variation. 2. The simple harmonic component of the daily variation having a period of 24 hours. HDBK-850
magnetic elements The declination, the horizontal intensity, the vertical intensity, the total intensity, the inclination or dip, the strength of the force toward geographic north, and the strength of the force toward geographic east. HDBK-850
magnetic equator (JCS) A line drawn on a map or chart connecting all points at which the magnetic inclination (dip) is zero for a specified epoch. Also called aclinic line; dip equator. See also geo-magnetic equator. HDBK-850
magnetic field See magnetic field intensity. HDBK-850
magnetic field intensity The magnetic force exerted on an imaginary unit magnetic pole placed at any specified point of space. It is a vector quantity. Its direction is taken as the direction toward which a north magnetic pole would tend to move under the influence of the field. Also called magnetic field; magnetic field strength; magnetic force; magnetic intensity. HDBK-850
magnetic field strength See magnetic field intensity . HDBK-850
magnetic force See magnetic field intensity. HDBK-850
magnetic inclination See dip, definition 2. HDBK-850
magnetic intensity See magnetic field intensity. HDBK-850
magnetic isoporic line See isopor. HDBK-850
magnetic latitude See dip, definition 2. HDBK-850
magnetic lines of force Imaginary lines so drawn in a region containing a magnetic field to be everywhere tangent to the magnetic field intensity vector if in vacuum or nonmagnetic material, or parallel to the magnetic induction vector if in a magnetic medium. HDBK-850
magnetic lunar daily variation A periodic variation of the Earth's magnetic field that is in phase with the transit of the Moon. HDBK-850
magnetic meridian At any point, the direction of the horizontal component of the Earth's magnetic field. Not to be confused with geomagnetic meridian. HDBK-850
magnetic moment The quantity obtained by multiplying the distance between two magnetic poles by the average strength of the poles. HDBK-850
magnetic north (JCS) The direction indicated by the north-seeking pole of a freely suspended magnetic needle, influenced only by the Earth's magnetic field. See also compass north. HDBK-850
magnetic observation Measurement of any of the magnetic elements. HDBK-850
magnetic pole Either of the two places on the surface of the Earth where the magnetic dip is 90░. Not to be confused with geomagnetic pole. Also called dip pole. HDBK-850
magnetic prime vertical The vertical circle through the magnetic east and west points of the horizon. HDBK-850
magnetic secular change Increase or decrease of intensity and/or change of direction of t'e Earth's magnetic field over a period of many years [usually given as average gammas per year for intensity values and minutes per year for directional values]. HDBK-850
magnetic solar daily variation A periodic variation of the Earth's magnetic field that is in phase with solar (local) time. HDBK-850
magnetic station A monumented station at which a series of magnetic observations have been made. It usually consists of a bronze marker set in stone or concrete at which, in addition to latitude and longitude, the magnetic value is indicated. HDBK-850
magnetic storm See magnetic disturbance. HDBK-850
magnetic survey A survey conducted to measure the strength and/or direction of t'e Earth's magnetic field at specific points on or near the surface of the Earth. HDBK-850
magnetic tape Ferrous-coated tape. Selective polarization of the surface permits the sequential storage of digital data. Commonly, magnetic tape refers to reel-to-reel tape as opposed to tape enclosed within cartridges. HDBK-850
magnetic variation (JCS)1. In navigation, at a given place and time, the horizontal angle between the true north and magnetic north measured east or west according to whether magnetic north lies east or west of true north. Also called variation. See also magnetic declination. 2. In cartography, the annual change in direction of the horizontal component of t'e earth's magnetic field. HDBK-850
magnetic variation chart A chart depicting isogonic lines, or lines of equal magnetic declination, for a given time. HDBK-850
magnetism The ability to attract magnetic material, notably iron and steel. Also called terrestrial magnetism. See also blue magnetism; geomagnetism; horizontal intensity; red magnetism; vertical intensity. HDBK-850
magnetometer An instrument used in the study of geomagnetism for measuring a magnetic element. See also flux-gate magnetometer; flux meter; nuclear precession magnetometer; optical pumping magnetometer; theodo-lite/magnetometer; variometer. HDBK-850
magnetometer survey A survey wherein the Earth's magnetic field is mapped by the use of a magnetometer. See also magnetic survey. HDBK-850
magneto-optical disc A mass storage media which consists of a transparent rigid substrate, which is coated with a recording layer composed of rare earth and transition metals. Writing is achieved by using a laser to raise the temperature of a small area of the recording layer. This temporarily lowers the coercivity (the strength of the magnetic state), allowing the direction of the magnetic field to be reversed by a small external magnetic field applied by the drive's magnetic head. Erasing is accomplished by the same process, except the applied magnetic field is reversed in direction. Reading of magneto-optical material can be performed either magnetically or optically. HDBK-850
magnification (optics) The ratio of the size of an object to the size of its magnified image. Also called power of a lens. See also angular magnification; diopter; lateral magnification; linear magnification; longitudinal magnification; unidimensional magnification. HDBK-850
magnifying power The ratio of the apparent length of a linear dimension as seen through an optical instrument, and by the unaided eye. Thus, an instrument with a magnifying power of three makes an object appear three times as high and three times as wide. Also called diameter. See also diopter. HDBK-850
magnitude 1. Relative brightness of a celestial body. Also called stellar magnitude. 2. The intensity of a short-period magnetic fluctuation, usually expressed in milligausses or gammas. 3. Relating to amount, size, or greatness. HDBK-850
mail gateway A machine that connects two or more electronic mail systems and transfers mail messages among them. Mail gateways usually capture an entire mail message, reformat it according to the reles of the destination mail system, and then forward the message. [Comer] [DISA/DO3 (CIO)] DISA CFS
main scheme station A station through which the main computations and adjustments of the survey data are carried and serve for the continued extension of the survey. Also called primary station; principal station. HDBK-850
Major Automated Information System (MAIS) Acquisition Program An AIS acquisition program that is (1) designated by ASD(C3I) as a MAIS, or (2) estimated to require program costs in any single year in excess of 30 million in fiscal year (FY) 1996 constant dollars, total program costs in excess of 120 million in FY 1996 constant dollars, or total life-cycle costs in excess of 360 million in FY 1996 constant dollars. MAIS Acquisition Programs do not include highly sensitive classified programs (as determined by the Secretary of Defense). For the purpose of 3 determining whether an AIS is a MAIS, the following shall be aggregated and considered a single AIS: (1) the separate AISs that constitute a multi-element program; (2) the separate AISs that make up an evolutionary or incrementally developed program; or (3) the separate AISs that make up an a multi-component AIS program. DoDD 5000.1
major axis The longest diameter of an ellipse or ellipsoid. HDBK-850
major datum See preferred datum. HDBK-850
Major Defense Acquisition Program (MDAP) An acquisition program that is not a highly sensitive classified program (as determined by the Secretary of Defense) and that is: (1) designated by the USD(A&T) as an MDAP, or (2) estimated by the USD(A&T) to require an eventual total expenditure for research, development, test and evaluation of more than 355 million in FY 1996 constant dollars or, for procurement, of more than 2.135 billion in FY 1996 constant dollars (10 USC Sec. 2430, reference (f)). DoDD 5000.1
major grid The primary grid or grids on a map or chart. See also overlapping grid; secondary grid. HDBK-850
major milestone {DoD} A major milestone is the decision point that separates the phases of an acquisition program. MDAP milestones include, for example, the decisions to authorize entry into the engineering and manufacturing development phase, or to begin full-rate production. MAIS milestones may include, for example, the decision to begin program definition and risk reduction. DoDD 5000.1
major planets The four largest planets; Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Also called giant planets. See also asteroid; inner planets; outer planets. HDBK-850
make line An accurately scaled line denoting the size to which original copy is to be enlarged or reduced. Also called make size. See also scale of reproduction. HDBK-850
make ready The adjustment of feeder, grippers, side guide, pressure between plate and blanket cylinder, impression plate, and ink fountain prior to a press run. HDBK-850
make size See make line. HDBK-850
manager An engineering object which manages a collection (unit) of engineering objects. A cluster (capsule) manager is responsible for managing a single (capsule) cluster of engineering objects. RM-ODP
maneuvering board A polar coordinate plotting sheet devised to facilitate solution of problems involving relative movement. HDBK-850
man-made features See culture. HDBK-850
MANpower and PeRsonnel INTegration (MANPRINT) An Army program that addresses concerns with manpower, personnel, training, human factors, system safety, and health hazards. [HCI Style Guide] DISA CFS
manually digitized The process of converting an analog map or other graphic overlay into numeric format with the use of a digitizing table/tablet and manually tracing the input with a cursor. HDBK-850
manually encoded The process of data input, including tabular and attribute information, into a computer-compatible format through the use of direct operator interaction with collection and/or storage system peripherals. HDBK-850
manuscript The original drawing of a map as compiled or constructed frown various data, such as ground surveys and photograph. See also multiuse manuscript. HDBK-850
map 1. (JCS) A graphic representation, usually on a plane surface and at an established scale of natural and artificial features on the surface of a part or the whole of the Earth or other planetary body. The features are positioned relative to a coordinate reference system. 2. To prepare a map or engage in a mapping operation. See also administrative map; base map; battle map; boundary map; cadastral map; choreographic map; compiled map; contour map; controlled map; county map; distribution map; domestic map; engineering map; experimental map; flight map; flood control map; fluorescent map; forestry map; general map; general-purpose map; geological map; gravimetric map; gravity anomaly map; hemispherical map; hypsographic map (or chart); landscape map; large-scale map; line-route map; medium-scale map; morphographic map; native map; operation map; orthophotomap; orthopictomap; outline map; photocontour map; photorevised map; photocontrol index map; photogrammetric map; photomap; physiographic pictorial map; pictogram; pictomap; planetable map; planimetric base map; planimetric map; planning map; plastic relief map; port plan; provisional map; quadrangle; radar intelligence map; radar map; reconnaissance map; red light readable map; relief model; road map; route map; shaded-relief map; situation map; sketch map; small-scale map; source map; special-purpose map; special job-cover map; standard accuracy map; standard content map; state base map; strategic map; Tactical Commanders' Terrain Analysis; tactical map; topical map; topographic map; Topographic Map of the United States; traffic circulation map; wall map; weather map. HDBK-850
map accuracy specifications Specifications which set up standards to which the finished map must adhere. See also United States National Map Accuracy Standards. HDBK-850
map accuracy standards See United States National Map Accuracy Standards. HDBK-850
map adjustment An adjustment of the horizontal position of maps to control points or to a specific grid plotted on the map projection at compilation scale. HDBK-850
map chart See combat chart. HDBK-850
map controlled Utilization of a map, rather than geodetic or photogrammetric data, for purposes of positioning map detail. HDBK-850
map exchange agreement An approved agreement between a United States mapping organization and a foreign mapping organization to furnish each other specified mapping, charting, and geodetic data as published, or on a request basis. See also cooperative mapping agreement. HDBK-850
map index (JCS) Graphic key primarily designed to give the relationship between sheets of a series, their coverage, availability, and further information on the series. See also map. HDBK-850
map matching The simultaneous electronic or mechanical optical scanning of an observed map image obtained from a space vehicle, and a reference map image, while the reference map image is being oriented and scaled until a close comparison between the two is found. An inspection of the scale and orientation of the reference map indicates the position of the vehicle. See also pulse Doppler map matching. HDBK-850
map matching guidance The guidance of a rocket or aerodynamic vehicle by means of a radarscope film previously obtained by a reconnaissance flight over the terrain of the route or from a radar simulation system, and used to direct the vehicle by aligning itself with radar echoes received during flight from the terrain below. See also stellar map matching. HDBK-850
map nadir Point on a map or manuscript vertically beneath the perspective center of the camera lens at the instant of exposure. HDBK-850
map of standard format A map with dimensions, layout, lettering, and symbolization in accordance with the specifications for the series. HDBK-850
map parallel See axis of homology. HDBK-850
map point A supplemental control point whose horizontal position can be obtained by scaling the coordinates from a map or chart on which the point can be identified. HDBK-850
map projection A mathematical mapping of a geodetic ellipsoid, or part of a geodetic ellipsoid, to a plane. CEN/TC 287
map projection An orderly system of lines on a plane representing a corresponding system of imaginary lines on an adopted terrestrial datum surface. A map projection may be derived by geometrical construction or by mathematical analysis. See also Aitoff equal-area map projection; Albers conical equal-map projection; aphylactic map projection; authalic map projection; azimuthal equidistant map projection; azimuthal map projection; Bonne map projection; Cassini map projection; Cassini-Soldner map projection; conformal map projection; conic map projection; conic map projection with two standard parallels; cylindrical equal-area map projection; cylindrical equal-spaced map projection; cylindrical map projection; doubly azimuthal map projection; equal-area map projection; equatorial map projection; globular map projection; gnomonic map projectio'; Goode's interrupted homolosine projection; Hammer projection; homalographic map projection; interrupted map projection; Laborde map projection; Lambert azimuthal polar map projection; Lambert central equivalent map projection upon the plane of the meridian; Lambert conformal conic map projection; Lambert zenithal equal-area map projection; Mercator map projection; meridional orthographic map projection; modified Lambert conformal map projection; modified polyconic map projection; Mollweide homalographic map projection; nonperspective azimuthal map projection; oblique map projection; oblique Mercator map projection; orthembadic map projection; orthographic map projection; perspective map projection; perspective map projection upon a tangent cylinder; polar map projection; polar orthographic map projection; polar stereographic map projection; polyconic map projection; polyhedric projection; rectangular map projection; rectangular polyconic map projection; simple conic map projection; sinusoidal map projection; skewed map projection; stereographic horizon map projection; stereographic map projection; stereographic meridional map projection; transverse map projection; transverse Mercator map projection; transverse polyconic map projection; Werner map projection. HDBK-850
map reference code (JCS) A code used primarily for encoding grid coordinates and other information pertaining to maps. This code may be used for other purposes when the encryption of numerals is required. HDBK-850
map revision See revision. HDBK-850
map scale the relationship between distance on a map and the corresponding distance on the earth's surface. Map scale is often recorded as a representative fraction such as 1:1,000,000 (1 unit on the map represents a million units on the earth's surface) or 1:24,000 (1 unit on the map represents 24,000 units on the earth's surface). The terms "large" and "small" refer to the relative magnitude of the representative fraction. Since 1/1,000,000 is a smaller fraction than 1/24,000, the former is said to be a smaller scale. Small scales are often used to map large areas because each map unit covers a larger earth distance. Large-scale maps are employed for detailed maps of smaller areas. See scale, definition 1. OpenGIS Guide
map series (JCS) A group of maps or charts usually having the same scale and cartographic specifications, and with each sheet appropriately identified by producing agency as belonging to the same series. Also called series. HDBK-850
map sheet (JCS) An individual map or chart, either complete in itself or part of a series. Also called series. HDBK-850
map substitute A hasty reproduction of aerial photographs, photomaps, or mosaics, or of provisional maps, or any other product used in place of a map, when the precise requirements of a map cannot be met. HDBK-850
map test The accuracy of topographic mapping can be tested by running traverse and level lines across selected areas of any map sheet, and comparing geographic positions of map features with those determined by traverse and comparing interpolated elevations of points from the map with those determined by the level line. HDBK-850
map-controlled mosaic A technique of constructing mosaics by using topographic maps as the basis for control and orientation purposes. The method may be used in preparing both controlled and semicontrolled mosaics although its use is preferred with the latter. HDBK-850
Mapping Analysis Tool for Transportation (MATT) A USTRANSCOM staff initiative that will provide automated transportation planning capabilities to strategic transportation planning personnel around the world. Through MATT, planners will be able to size lift requirements, match the proper lift assets to the cargo to be moved, follow the flow of individual items from marshaling areas through onloading, while in transit, and to effect delivery to the customer. USIS 95
mapping camera The modifier mapping or surveying indicates that the camera is equipped with mechanisms to maintain and to indicate the interior orientation of the photographs with sufficient accuracy for mapping purposes. A mapping camera may be an aerial mapping camera or terrestrial mapping camera. Also called surveying camera. HDBK-850
mapping photography Aerial photography obtained by precisely calibrated mapping cameras and conforming to mapping specifications, as distinguished from aerial photography for other purposes. Also called aerial cartographic photography; cartographic photography; charting photography; survey photography. HDBK-850
Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy (MC&G) MC&G comprises the collection, transformation, generation, dissemination, and storing of geodetic, geomagnetic, gravimetric, aeronautical, topographic, hydrographic, cultural, and toponymic data. These data may be used for military planning, training, and operations including aeronautical, nautical, and land navigation, as well as for weapon orientation and target positioning. MC&G also includes the evaluation of topographic, hydrographic, or aeronautical features for their effect on military operations or intelligence. The data may be presented in the form of topographic, planimetric, relief, or thematic maps and graphics; nautical and aeronautical charts and publications; and in simulated, photographic, digital, or computerized formats. HDBK-850
March equinox See vernal equinox [(Northern Hemisphere) or autumnal equinox (Southern Hemisphere)]. HDBK-850
margin (JCS) In cartography, the area of a map or chart lying outside the border. HDBK-850
margin data See marginal data. HDBK-850
margin information See marginal data. HDBK-850
marginal data (JCS) All explanatory information given in the margin of a map or chart which clarifies, defines, illustrates, and/or supplements the graphic portion of the sheet. Also called border data; border information; margin information. HDBK-850
Marine Air-Ground Intelligence System An integrated tactical data system designed to increase the Marine air-ground task force ability to produce targeting information and to correlate surveillance data and intelligence. Data base support is primarily from the Naval Intelligence Processing System. USIS 95
Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF) A task organization of Marine forces (division, aircraft wing, and service support groups) under a single command and structured to accomplish a specific mission. The MAGTF components will normally include command, aviation combat, ground combat, and combat service support elements (including Navy Support Elements). Three types of MAGTFs which can be task organized are the Marine expeditionary unit (MEU), Marine expeditionary brigade (MEB), and Marine expeditionary force (MEF). The four elements of a MAGTF are: command element (CE); aviation combat element (ACE); ground combat element (GCE); and, combat service support element (CSSE). JPUB 1-02
Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) Fusion Center (MAFC) Marine Corps all-source analysis, production. And target intelligence organization. The MAFC (or a detachment) is subordinate to the MAGTF G-2/S-2 USIS 95
Marine Corps Imagery Support Unit Service-level imagery asset, located in Camp Pendleton. California. Operates Marine Corps JSIPS(NIS) and softcopy exploitation system. Provides Marine Corps access to national and theater collectors; when deployed provides MAGTF commander with ability to receive national and tactical imagery in near-real-time. USIS 95
Marine Corps Intelligence Activity (MCIA) Service level analysis and production agency; mission is to provide tailored intelligence and services to support (1) the Commandant of the Marine Corps; (2) the development of service-unique doctrine, force structure, and training; and Fleet Marine Force contingency planning and other requirements for intelligence support not satisfied by theater, other service, or national capabilities. Headquartered at the National Maritime Intelligence Center(NMIC) in Suitland, MD, with additional facilities at Quantico, VA. MCIA Web Site
Marine expeditionary brigade (MEB) A task organization which is normally built around a regimental landing team, a provisional Marine aircraft group, and a logistics support group. It is capable of conducting amphibious assault operations of a limited scope. During potential crisis situations, a MEB may be forward deployed afloat for an extended period in order to provide an immediate combat response. See also Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF). JPUB 1-02
Marine expeditionary force (MEF) The MEF, the largest of the marine air-ground task forces, is normally built around a division/wing team, but can include several divisions and aircraft wings, together with an appropriate combat service support organization. The MEF is capable of conducting a wide range of amphibious assault operations and sustained operations ashore. It can be tailored for a wide variety of combat missions in any geographic environment. See also Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF). JPUB 1-02
Marine expeditionary unit (MEU) A task organization which is normally built around a battalion landing team, reinforced helicopter squadron, and logistic support unit. It fulfills routine forward afloat deployment requirements, provides an immediate reaction capability for crisis situations, and is capable of relatively limited combat operations. See also Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF). JPUB 1-02
Marine Forces Previously referred to as Fleet Marine Force (FMF). A balanced force of combined arms comprising land, air, and service elements of the U.S. Marine Corps. USIS 95
marine map See hydrographic chart. HDBK-850
Marine Observation Satellite (MOS) MOS-1, launched February 19, 1987, was developed by Japan for earth observation towards effective utilization of the Earth's resources and environmental conservation. Both MOS-1 and MOS-1b, launched February 7, 1990, carried a payload of MESSR (Multispectral Electronic Self-Scanning Radiometer), VTIR (Visible and Thermal IR Radiometer) and MSR (Microwave Scanning Radiometer). MESSR was designed for land and water body mapping, VTIR for water vapor and sea surface temperature monitoring, and MSR for water vapor, sea ice and snow observation. Visible, infrared and micro wave imaging from the satellites sensors is utilized to study conditions pertaining to use of forest, fishery and water resources and to monitor ocean and atmospheric pollution. NASDA SE
marine sextant A sextant designed primarily for marine navigation. HDBK-850
marine survey See oceanographic survey. HDBK-850
mark 1. A call used when simultaneous observations are being made, to indicate to the second person the moment a reading is to be made, as when the time of a celestial observation is to be noted; or the moment a reading is a prescribed value. 2. (surveying) A definite object, such as an imprinted metal disk, used to designate a survey point and sometimes refers to the entire survey monument. Mark is used with a qualifying term such as station, reference, or bench. See also bench mark; reference mark; station mark; witness mark. 3. (photogrammetry) See floating mark; index mark. HDBK-850
MARK 85 MARK 85 was the first of two development phases of the Defense Mapping Agency's Digital Production System (DPS). Its mission was to improve hardcopy production methods, generate improved production management and data base management capabilities, and provide initial softcopy production capability. The six segments included: Hardcopy Exploitation (HE/S), Source Acquisition (SA/S), Data Integration (DI/S), Feature Extraction (FE/S), Universal Rectifier (UR/S), and Digital Comparator (DC/S). See also Digital Production System; MARK 90. HDBK-850
MARK 90 MARK 90 was the second of two development phases of the Defense Mapping Agency's Digital Production System (DPS). Its mission was to provide DMA [now NIMA] with end-to-end softcopy production capabilities. MARK 90 incorporated the Data Integration, Source Acquisition, Hardcopy Exploitation, and the Universal Rectifier Segments of the MARK 85 phase with new Production Management, Data Services, Source Preparation, Data Extraction, and Product Generation Segments. See also Digital Production System; MARK 85. HDBK-850
market acceptance Means that an item has been accepted in the market as evidenced by annual sales, length of time available for sale, and after-sale support capability. [SD-2, April 1996] JTA 2.0
Marsden chart A chart showing the distribution of meteorological data, especially over the oceans. HDBK-850
MASINT Requirements Subcommittee Reviews and submits collection requirements for MASINT targets. USIS 95
mask 1. In photomechanical processing, to block out an area by means of actinically opaque material, to prevent exposure in the part blocked out. Also, the covering material itself when so applied. 2. A clear stable base plastic, coated with an opaque stratum which can be peeled off between photographically etched outline images, thus producing an open-window negative of the desired area. This process of masking is often identified by the trade name of the material used. 3. A continuous tone positive or negative made from an original negative or positive for the purpose of altering the image produced from the original. Used to alter contrast, correct color portrayal, or produce pictotone or pictoline images. HDBK-850
masking A means of controlling plastic expansion locally during forming of plastic relief maps to obtain more accurate register of preprinted line work to the landforms of the mold. By masking, differential heating is achieved. Also called screening. HDBK-850
masking paper See goldenrod paper. HDBK-850
mass attraction vertical The normal to any surface of constant geopotential. On the Earth this vertical is a function only of the distribution of the mass and is unaffected by forces resulting from the motions of the Earth; e.g., the direction of a plumb bob on a nonrotating Earth. HDBK-850
master film positive A positive made from an original negative for the purpose of making additional negatives. HDBK-850
master glass negative See calibration plate. HDBK-850
master model The developed original terrain model which bears, in miniature, the same spatial relationships as the actual ground it represents. Also called original model. HDBK-850
master plot (JCS) A portion of a map or overlay on which are drawn the outlines of the areas covered by an air photographic sortie. Latitude and longitude, and map and sortie information are shown. HDBK-850
master print (mosaicking) A photograph which is representative of the mosaic area used as a guide during the developing process to insure the tonal match of subsequent prints. HDBK-850
master projection The originally computed and constructed map projection from which copies are made; one such projection serves as the master for copies circling the globe within the same set of standard parallels. HDBK-850
master station That station in a given system of transmitting stations that controls the transmissions of the other stations (the slave stations) and maintains the time relationship between the pulses of the stations. In satellite surveys, positions can be upgraded considerably by translocation. See also translocation. HDBK-850
match lines A series of grease pencil lines drawn on a photograph, radiating from the torn edges of the print onto the adjacent areas to serve as a registration guide when laying the individual print in the mosaic. HDBK-850
match strip See tie strip, definition 1. HDBK-850
matching The act by which detail or information on the edge, or overlap area, of a map or chart is compared, adjusted, and corrected to agree with the existing overlapping chart. Also called edge matching. HDBK-850
materials and processes Development of manmade materials (e.g., composites, electronic and photonic materials, smart materials) for improved structures, higher temperature engines, signature reduction, and electronics, and the synthesis and processing required for their application. USIS 95
Materiel Fielding Conference A meeting between the developer, the user, and the O & M support activities to plan and coordinate the fielding of a new system or a system upgrade. [DISA/D4] DISA CFS
Materiel Fielding Plans (MFP) The Materiel Fielding Plan is the document which outlines the coordinated process for fielding new systems or major upgrades to existing systems to the users. It is the document which results from the process of planning, coordinating, and executing the deployment of a materiel system and its support, and is characterized by advanced planning, coordination, and agreement between the DISA element that acquired the system and the gaining organization. The process begins with the initial ILS planning and its aim is to ensure the fielding and gaining commands are able to successfully deploy and sustain the system being fielded. [DISA/D4] DISA CFS
matrix Consisting of one or more regular 2-dimensional arrays based on points of a grid. ISO/TC 211
matrix data Data which consists of a matrix of evenly spaced rows and columns of data points. The position within the rows and columns represents the geographic position, while the data point is the value of some spatial variable at that position., An example is DTED, which provides elevations at nominal 100 meter horizontal intervals. HDBK-850
matte print Print made on photographic paper with a dull finish which is more suitable for pencil or ink annotations than a glossy print. HDBK-850
maximum elevation figure (JCS) A figure, shown in each quadrangle bounded by ticked graticule lines on aeronautical charts, which represents the height in thousands and hundreds of feet, above mean sea level, of the highest known natural or man-made feature in that quadrangle, plus suitable factors to allow for inaccuracy and incompleteness of the topographical heighting information. HDBK-850
maximum elevation value The highest vertical coordinate which can be found in a dataset. CEN/TC 287
maximum radius of error Sometimes used in lieu of circular error probable (CEP). USIS 95
Mbone Multicast Backbone; A collection of sites on the Internet that support the IP multicasting protocol (one-to-many) and allow for live audio and videoconferencing. Multimedia
MC&G Utility Software Environment (MUSE) Software programs which perform general purpose operations on Mapping, Charting & Geodesy (MC&G) data that are applicable to a broad range of systems and users rather than a single, special purpose. Some examples include datum and projection transformations, coordinate conversions, and symbol libraries. HDBK-850
mean anomaly See anomaly, definition 3. HDBK-850
mean center of Moon 1. A central point for a lunar coordinate system. 2. The point on the lunar surface intersected by the lunar radius that is directed toward t'e Earth's center when the Moon is at the mean ascending node and when the node coincides with the mean perigee or mean apogee. HDBK-850
mean chart Any chart on which isopleths of the mean value of a given oceanographic element are drawn. Also called mean map. HDBK-850
mean deviation See average deviation. HDBK-850
mean distance See semimajor axis. HDBK-850
mean diurnal high water inequality (DHQ) Half the average difference between the heights of the two high waters of each tidal day over a 19-year period, or a computed equivalent period, obtained by subtracting the mean of all high waters from the mean of the higher high waters. HDBK-850
mean diurnal low water inequality (DLQ) Half the average difference between the heights of the two low waters of each tidal day over a 19-year period, or a computed equivalent period, obtained by subtracting the mean of the lower low waters from the mean of all low waters. HDBK-850
mean equinox A fictitious equinox whose position is that of the vernal equinox at a particular date with the effect of nutation removed. Also called mean equinox of date. HDBK-850
mean equinox of date See mean equinox. HDBK-850
mean error The algebraic mean of all errors derived by comparing observed or computed quantities with all fixed values of common dimensional parameters in an integral observation system or computation model. A mean error differing significantly from zero indicates a bias in the system or model that should be removed. HDBK-850
mean free-air anomaly The repre-sentative free-air gravity value for a given geographic area; e.g., 1' x 1' mean, 10' x 10' mean, etc. HDBK-850
mean ground elevation Average elevation of the terrain above mean sea level of an area to be photographed. HDBK-850
mean high water (MHW) The average height of all the high waters recorded over a 19-year period, or a computed equivalent period. HDBK-850
mean high water lunitidal interval See lunitidal interval. HDBK-850
mean high water springs (MHWS) The average height of all high waters recorded during syzygy over a 19-year period, or a computed equivalent period. Also called high water springs. HDBK-850
mean higher high water (MHHW) The average height of all the daily higher high waters recorded over a 19-year period or a computed equivalent period. It is usually associated with a tide exhibiting mixed characteristics. HDBK-850
mean higher high water springs (MHHWS) The average height of all higher high waters recorded during syzygy over a 19-year period, or a computed equivalent period. HDBK-850
mean low water (MLW) The average height of all low waters recorded over a 19-year period, or a computed equivalent period. HDBK-850
mean low water lunitidal interval See lunitidal interval. HDBK-850
mean low water springs (MLWS) The average height of all low waters recorded during syzygy over a 19-year period, or a computed equivalent period. HDBK-850
mean lower low water (MLLW) The average height of all the lower low waters recorded over a 19-year period, or a computed equivalent period. It is usually associated with a tide exhibiting mixed characteristics. HDBK-850
mean lower low water springs (MLLWS) The average height of all lower low waters recorded during syzygy over a 19-year period, or a computed equivalent period. HDBK-850
mean map See mean chart. HDBK-850
mean of the errors The average value of a set of errors. HDBK-850
mean place See mean position. HDBK-850
mean position The position of a star corrected for secular variations including proper motion, but uncorrected for short term variations. Also called mean place. HDBK-850
mean range (Mn) The difference in height between mean high water and mean low water, measured in feet or meters. HDBK-850
mean refraction The refraction effect on vertical angles given usually in the plane of a vertical circle for average conditions of temperature and barometric pressure. HDBK-850
mean river level The average height of the surface of a river at any point for all stages of the tide over a 19-year period, or a computed equivalent period, usually determined from hourly height readings. Unusual variations of river level due to discharge or runoff may be excluded in computation. HDBK-850
mean sea level (MSL) (JCS) The average height of the surface of the sea for all stages of the tide, used as a reference for elevations. [Usually determined by averaging height readings observed hourly over a minimum period of 19 years.] Also called sea level datum. HDBK-850
mean sidereal time Sidereal time adjusted for nutation, to eliminate slight irregularities in the rate. HDBK-850
mean solar day The interval of time from a transit of the mean sun across a given meridian to its next successive transit across the same meridian. HDBK-850
mean solar time Time measured by the diurnal motion of a fictitious body, termed the mean sun, which is supposed to move uniformly in the celestial equator, completing the circuit in 1 tropical year. The mean sun may be considered as moving in the celestial equator and having a right ascension equal to the mean celestial longitude of the true sun. Also called mean time. HDBK-850
mean sphere depth The uniform depth to which the water would cover the Earth if the solid surfaces were smoothed off and were parallel to the surface of the geoid. HDBK-850
mean square error The quantity whose square is equal to the sum of the squares of the individual errors divided by the number of those errors. HDBK-850
mean sun See fictitious sun. HDBK-850
mean tide level (MTL) The reference plane midway between mean high water and mean low water. Also called half tide level; ordinary tide level. HDBK-850
mean time See mean solar time. HDBK-850
mean time between failure (MTBF) The average time a component works without failure. It is the number of failures that occur divided into the total number of hours under observation. USIS 95
mean time to repair (MTTR) The average time required to repair a particular piece of equipment. USIS 95
meander corner A corner established at the intersection of standard, township, or section lines with the meander line near banks of navigable streams or any meanderable body of water. HDBK-850
meander line A traverse of the margin of a permanent natural body of water, along the locus of the bank or shoreline at the elevation of mean or ordinary high water, upon which bank or shoreline a riparian right may be predicated. HDBK-850
Measure of Effectiveness (MOE) A qualitative or quantitative statement of an entity's performance with respect to a specified requirement (e.g., range effectiveness of this aircraft is .75). May be defined in terms of a user defined function. USIS 95
Measure of Performance (MOP) A quantitative statement of an entity's ability to perform a specified function under specified conditions (e.g., this aircraft has a range of 750 nautical miles cruising at 300 knots at 40000 feet). USIS 95
measured angle An angle as read directly from an instrumental observation and without any application of corrections for local conditions. A measured angle which has been corrected for local conditions only at the point of observation is considered as an observed angle. HDBK-850
measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT) (DOD) Scientific and technical intelligence obtained by quantitative and qualitative analysis of data (metric, angle, spatial, wavelength, time dependence, modulation, plasma, and hydromagnetic) derived from specific technical sensors for the purpose of identifying any distinctive features associated with the target. The detected feature may be either reflected or emitted. See also intelligence. JPUB 1-02
mechanical arm templet See spider templet. HDBK-850
mechanical-templet Any templet which is manipulated and adjusted mechanically in laying out a radial triangulation. HDBK-850
mechanical-templet plot See mechanical-templet triangulation. HDBK-850
mechanical-templet triangulation A graphical radial triangulation using slotted, spider, or any form of mechanical templet. Also called mechanical-templet plot. HDBK-850
mechanism A physical resource that is involved with the performance of an activity, e.g. personnel, tools, and automated systems. C4ISR AF
media The plural form of medium. Media can be classified as source, input, and output. Checks are an example of source media. Diskettes are an example of input media. Output media can be magnetic tape and paper printouts. Webster Computer
mediator A service which acts as an intermediary capable of impartially negotiating between a service requester and a service provider regarding aspects of a service to be provided. The mediation function often follows broker, trader or agent functions. OpenGIS Guide
medium The physical substance upon which data is recorded, such as floppy disks, magnetic tapes, and paper. Webster Computer
medium altitude endurance (MAE) A category of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). USIS 95
medium resolution National Imagery Interpretation Rating Scale (NIIRS) 4.5 to 6.0. USIS 95
medium-scale map (JCS) A map having a scale larger than 1:600,000 and smaller than 1:75,000. See also map. HDBK-850
megaflops Millions of floating point operations per second. USIS 95
Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) A formal written and signed agreement between two or more parties. USIS 95
Memorandum of Policy (MOP) A JCS system of documenting policy for DoD. USIS 95
Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) A formal written and signed statement between two or more parties. USIS 95
memorial A durable article deposited in the ground at the position of a corner to perpetuate that position should the monument be removed or destroyed. The memorial is usually deposited at the base of the monument and may consist of anything durable such as glass or stoneware, a marked stone, charred stake, or a quantity of charcoal. HDBK-850
memory 1. All of the addressable storage space in a processing unit and other internal memory that is used to execute instructions. 2. Main storage, when used in reference to calculators, microcomputers, and some minicomputers. [JITC Dictionary] DISA CFS
Mendenhall pendulum An invariable pendulum, one-quarter meter in length, with a vibration period of one-half second, composed of a lenticular-shaped bob on a thin stem, swung in an airtight case from which the air has been largely exhausted. HDBK-850
mensuration 1. The act, process, or art of measuring. 2. That branch of mathematics dealing with the determination of length, area, or volume. HDBK-850
Mensuration Control System A National Air Intelligence Center (NAIC) system incorporating hardware and software to permit the mensuration of hardcopy and softcopy imagery. USIS 95
Mercator bearing See rhumb bearing. HDBK-850
Mercator chart A chart on the Mercator projection. This is the chart commonly used for marine navigation. Also called equatorial cylindrical orthomorphic chart. HDBK-850
Mercator direction Horizontal direction of a rhumb line, expressed as angular distance from a reference direction. Also called rhumb direction. HDBK-850
Mercator equal-area map projection See sinusoidal map projection. HDBK-850
Mercator map projection A conformal map projection of the cylindrical type. The Equator is represented by a straight line true to scale; the geographic meridians are represented by parallel straight lines perpendicular to the line representing the Equator; they are spaced according to their distance apart at the Equator. The geographic parallels are represented by a second system of straight lines perpendicular to the family of lines representing the meridians and therefore parallel with the Equator. Conformality is achieved by mathematical analysis, the spacing of the parallels being increased with increasing distance from the Equator to conform with the expanding scale along the parallels resulting from the meridians being represented by parallel lines. Also called equatorial cylindrical orthomorphic map projection. HDBK-850
Mercator track See rhumb line. HDBK-850
mercury barometer A barometer in which atmospheric pressure is balanced against the weight of a column of mercury. See also aneroid barometer; cistern barometer; siphon barometer. HDBK-850
Mercury datum A worldwide geodetic system derived from an analysis of data from astrogeodetic, gravimetric, and satellite sources. Results of this analysis provided a best-fitting world ellipsoid used in tracking Project Mercury manned space missions and as the reference datum for the electronic navigation systems - Omega, LORAN, and LORAN-C. See also Fischer ellipsoid of 1960. HDBK-850
merge To take two or more maps or data sets and combine them together into a single, coherent map or data base without redundant information. HDBK-850
merging The process of joining two or more overlapping data sets. HDBK-850
meridian A north-south reference line, particularly a great circle through the geographical poles of the Earth, from which longitudes and azimuths are determined; or a plane, normal to the geoid or spheroid, defining such a line. See also astronomic meridian; auxiliary guide meridian; celestial meridian; central meridian; convergence of meridians; double meridian distance; ecliptic meridian; fictitious meridian; geodetic meridian; geographic meridian; geomagnetic meridian; Greenwich meridian; grid meridian; guide meridian; gyro meridian; local meridian; magnetic meridian; meridional difference; meridional part; meridional plane; oblique meridian; photograph meridian; prime fictitious meridian; prime grid meridian; prime meridian; prime oblique meridian; prime transverse meridian; principal meridian; standard meridian; table of meridional parts; time meridian; transverse meridian; true meridian. HDBK-850
meridian The intersection between a reference figure of the Earth and a plane containing the polar axis. NOTE - Often used for one of the pole-to-pole arcs rather than the complete closed figure. ISO/TC 211
meridian altitude The altitude of a celestial body when it is on the celestial meridian of the observer. HDBK-850
meridian angle Angular distance east or west of the local celestial meridian; the arc of the celestial equator, or the angle at the celestial pole, between the upper branch of the local celestial meridian and the hour circle of a celestial body, measured eastward or westward from the local celestial meridian through 180░, and labeled "E" or "W" to indicate the direction of measurement. HDBK-850
meridian angle difference The difference between two meridian angles, particularly between the meridian angle of a celestial body and the value used as an argument for entering a table. Also called hour angle difference. HDBK-850
meridian distance 1. (astronomy) The hour angle of a celestial body when close to but not exactly on the astronomic meridian. 2. (plane surveying) The perpendicular distance in a horizontal plane of a point from a meridian of reference. The difference of the meridian distances of the ends of a line is called the departure of the line. HDBK-850
meridian extension That portion of a meridian shown above the top construction line of a projection. HDBK-850
meridian line (plane surveying) The line of intersection of the plane of the celestial meridian and the plane of the horizon. It is a horizontal direction used in surveying. Its astronomic azimuth is 0░ or 180░. HDBK-850
meridian observation Measurement of the altitude of a celestial body on the celestial meridian of the observer, or the altitude so measured. HDBK-850
meridian passage See meridian transit. HDBK-850
meridian plane of a point A plane containing the polar axis and the point. CEN/TC 287
meridian telescope A portable instrument so designed that it can be used as an astronomic transit, or quickly converted for use as a zenith telescope. HDBK-850
meridian transit The passage of a celestial body across a celestial meridian. Also called meridian passage. See also culmination; transit, definition 1. HDBK-850
meridional difference The difference between the meridional parts of any two given parallels. This difference is found by subtraction if the two parallels are on the same side of the Equator, and by addition if on opposite sides. HDBK-850
meridional distance The distance between latitude lines as determined from the mid-latitude of a map projection. HDBK-850
meridional interval The value of the distance between meridians of a projection at chart scale. HDBK-850
meridional offsets Small distances applied to the lengths of meridians in order to create the curves of the top and bottom latitudes of a projection. HDBK-850
meridional orthographic map projection A map projection having the plane of the projection parallel to the plane of some selected meridian; the geographic parallels and the central meridian are straight lines, the outer meridian is a full circle, and the other meridians are arcs of ellipses. HDBK-850
meridional part The length of the arc of a meridian between the Equator and a given parallel on a Mercator chart, expressed in units of 1' of longitude at the Equator. HDBK-850
meridional plane Any plane containing the polar axis of the Earth. See also astronomic meridian plane; geodetic meridian plane. HDBK-850
message A block of information sent from a source to one or more destinations. TAFIM 3.0
message handling Data transfer using message handling services. CEN/TC 287
message handling service Communication services able to move a file with information of destination between two adjacent message stores in connection through a data network while the message is transferred, CEN/TC 287
message switching 1. STORE-AND-FORWARD - A method of message handling at a switching facility whereby whole messages are received and held pending the availability of outgoing circuits, then transmitted onward on a first-in/first-out by precedence basis; may be manual, semiautomatic, or automatic.
2. PACKET - A method of message and data handling at an automatic switching facility whereby whole messages are broken down into units called packets, each typically containing 250 characters along with the header and trailer. Individual packets are routed from the originating node along one of several alternate paths to its destination node(s), where they are reassembled for delivery to the addressee.
3. TORN TAPE - An older method of message handling at a manual torn tape relay center, whereby messages on paper tape are received, processed, logged, and retransmitted by an available electromechanical transmitter distributor device. [Joint Pub 6-02.1]
Messaging System Any system used for the electronic exchange of either organizational or individual messages. [DISA/D2] DISA CFS
metadata Data about the content, quality, condition, and other characteristics of data. ISO/TC 211
metadata Information describing the characteristics of data; data or information about data; descriptive information about an organization's data, data activities, systems, and holdings. [DoD 8320.1-M-1, Data Standardization Procedures, August 1997] JTA 2.0
metadata element Unit of metadata for which the definition, identification, representation, and permissible values are specified by means of a set of attributes. ISO/TC 211
metadata entity type A collection of similar metadata element instances or metadata types. ISO/TC 211
metadata reference Reference dates and spatial reference system of the metadata. CEN/TC 287
metadata schema A conceptual schema defining metadata. CEN/TC 287
metadata section A collection of related metadata. ISO/TC 211
metadata set A set of metadata for the geographic data being transferred. CEN/TC 287
metaquality Quality about quality information. Metaquality is reported by metaquality elements. CEN/TC 287
metaquality element An item of information describing the metaquality for quality measures and for some sub-elements of lineage and usage. Metaquality elements are confidence, reliability, abstraction modifier, and methodology. CEN/TC 287
meteorological chart Any chart showing meteorological (weather) information. HDBK-850
meter rod See precise leveling rod. HDBK-850
metes-and-bounds survey A method of describing the boundaries of tracts of land by giving the bearing and length of each successive line. Much of the land in the nonpublic land States has been surveyed and described by this method. This method is also used in the surveys of the public lands to define the boundaries of irregular tracts, such as claims, grants, and reservations, which are non-conformable to the rectangular system of subdivision. HDBK-850
method An implementation of an operation. Code that may be executed to perform a requested service. Methods associated with an object may be structured into one or more programs. CORBA 2.2
method of repetitions The determination of the angle between two marks by accumulating, on the horizontal circle of a repeating theodolite, the sum of a series of measurements of the horizontal angle between the two marks. HDBK-850
method resolution The selection of the method to perform a requested operation. CORBA 2.2
methodology The metaquality element describing how quality information was assessed. CEN/TC 287
Metonic cycle A period of approximately 19 years, or a computed equivalent, during which all phase relationships between Moon, Sun, and Earth occur, and after the lapse of which the phases of the Moon return to a particular date in the calendar year. During any cycle, new and full Moon will recur on approximately the same day in the calendar year. HDBK-850
metric 1. A quantitative measure of the degree to which a system, asset, or process possesses a given attribute. 2. The definition, algorithm, or mathematical function used to make a quantitative assessment of a software product or process. S/W Reuse
metric camera A specially constructed and calibrated camera used to obtain geometrically accurate photographs for use in photogrammetric instruments. HDBK-850
Metric Mapping Support Data (MMSD) Camera model parameters which allow proper geographic positioning of features seen on imagery based on sensor position and pointing angle relative to the earth's geoid. HDBK-850
metric photography The recording of events by means of photographs, either singly or sequentially, together with appropriate coordinates, to form the basis for accurate measurements. HDBK-850
Metrogon lens The trade name of a wide-angle lens for aerial cameras used in mapping, charting, and reconnaissance photography. See also trimetrogon camera. HDBK-850
metropolitan area network (MAN) A data communications network that (a) covers an area larger than a campus area network and smaller than a wide area network (WAN), (b) interconnects two or more local area networks (LANs), and (c) usually covers an entire metropolitan area, such as a large city and its suburbs. FED STD 1037C
microcomputer A computer implemented with large-scale integration (LSI) central processing unit (CPU) (microprocessor) chips. It may have a 4, 8, 16, (or more) bit word length. A microprocessor system includes a microprocessor CPU, program memory (usually read only memory (ROM)), data storage (usually random access memory (RAM)), I/O circuitry, control and interrupt circuitry, and clock generators. [Joint Pub 6-02.1] DISA CFS
microfeatures Features of relief, drainage, and landforms which can be identified on photographs, but are too small to appear on maps HDBK-850
micrometer An auxiliary device to provide measurement of very small angles or dimensions by an instrument such as a telescope. See also filar micrometer; ocular micrometer; transit micrometer. HDBK-850
micrometer One millionth of a meter (1/25,000 of an inch). Used to measure wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum. .7 microns equates to 700 nanometers (also used to measure wavelength). Micron is a synonym for micrometer. Often abbreviated as Ám. USIS 95
micrometer method The determination of the astronomic azimuth of a line by measuring indirectly with an ocular micrometer attached to a theodolite or transit the horizontal angle between a selected star at its elongation and a suitable ground mark (light) placed close to the vertical plane which passes through the star, and applying that angle to the azimuth of the star computed for the epoch of the observation. HDBK-850
microprocessor A large-scale integration (LSI) chip, usually containing a small set of general registers, control circuitry, a small instruction set, and some input/output (I/O) capability. The microprocessor usually is used as the CPU of a microcomputer. [Joint Pub 6-02.1] DISA CFS
middle latitude One-half of the arithmetical sum of the latitudes of two places on the same side of the Equator. Middle latitude is labeled "N" or "S" to indicate whether it is north or south of the Equator. Also called mid-latitude. HDBK-850
middle ordinate The distance from the middle point of a chord to the middle point of the corresponding circular arc. HDBK-850
middle point (MP) That point on a circular curve which is equidistant from the two ends of the curve. HDBK-850
middletone In halftone, any neutral tone intermediate between the highlights and shadows of an original and the resulting reproduction. Also, the tones in a reproduction between the highlights and the shadows. HDBK-850
middleware Software that sits between the application and the control program (operating system, network control program and DBMS). It provides a single programming interface for an application to be written to, and the application will run in as many different computer environments as the middleware runs in. Freedman 1995
mid-latitude 1. See middle latitude. 2. (cartography) The one parallel that is at the same scale as indicated on a Mercator projection. HDBK-850
migration (system) Incrementally creating a more streamlined, efficient, smaller and cheaper suite. C4ISR AF
migration system {DoD} An existing AIS [automated information system], or a planned and approved AIS, that has been officially designated to support common processes for a functional activity applicable to use DoD-wide or DoD Component-wide. Systems in this category, even though fully deployed and operational, have been determined to accommodate a continuing and foreseeable future requirement and, consequently, have been identified for transitioning to a new environment or infrastructure. A migration system may need to undergo transition to the standard technical environment and standard data definitions being established through the Defense IM Program, and must "migrate" toward that standard. In that process it must become compliant with the Reference Model and the Standards Profile. A system in this category may require detailed analysis that involves a total redesign, reprogramming, testing, and implementation because of a new environment and how the "users" have changed their work methods and processes. The detailed analysis may identify the difference between the "as-is" and the "to-be" system. [DoD 8020.1-M.] TAFIM 3.0
Migration Transparency A distribution transparency which masks, from an object, the ability of a system to change the location of that object. Migration is often used to achieve load balancing and reduce latency. RM-ODP
mileage chart A chart showing distances between various points. HDBK-850
Milestone Decision Authority (MDA) The individual designated in accordance with criteria established by DoD 5000.2-R (reference(c)) to approve entry of an acquisition program into the next phase. DoDD 5000.1
Military Assistance Advisory Group A joint Service group, normally under the military command of a Unified Command and representing the Secretary of Defense, that primarily administers the U.S. military assistance planning and programming in the host country. USIS 95
military city map See city products. HDBK-850
Military Coordinating Activity ( MCA) The military activity responsible for coordinating, reconciling, and consolidating military comments for the DOD on a federal standardization document prepared by a civilian agency. [DOD 4120.3-M] DISA CFS
military damage assessment An appraisal of the effects of an attack on a 'ation's military forces to determine residual military capability, and to support planning for recovery and reconstitution. USIS 95
military geography (JCS) The specialized field of geography dealing with natural and man-made physical features that may affect the planning and conduct of military operations. HDBK-850
military grid (JCS) Two sets of parallel lines intersecting at right angles and forming squares; the grid is superimposed on maps, charts, and other similar representations of the'Earth's surface in an accurate and consistent manner to permit identification of ground locations with respect to other locations and the computation of direction and distance to other points. See also military grid reference system. HDBK-850
Military Grid Reference System (MGRS) 1. The alphanumeric position reporting system used by U.S. Military. 2. (JCS) A system which uses a standard-scaled grid square, based on a point of origin on a map projection of the Earth's surface in an accurate and consistent manner to permit either position referencing or the computation of direction and distance between grid positions. See also military grid. HDBK-850
Military Installation Map (MIM) Maps constructed from one or more standard series maps and overprinted with information such as fire zones, training areas and range facilities. MIMs are constructed only for major camps, posts, and areas which are used extensively for training and research. Produced at 1:50,000 scale. HDBK-850
Military Intelligence Board (MIB) A decisionmaking forum that formulates Defense intelligence policy and programming priorities. The MIB, chaired by the Director, DIA, who is dual-hatted as Director of Military Intelligence, consists of senior military and civilian intelligence officials of each Service, U.S. Coast Guard, each combat support agency, the Joint Staff/J-2/J-6, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (Intelligence), Intelligence Program Support Group, National Military Intelligence Production Center, National Military Intelligence Collection Center, National Military Intelligence Support Center and the combatant Command J-2s. USIS 95
military level A compact ruggedized version of the dumpy level developed specifically for military use. It is primarily used for third-order leveling, but has a second-order capability. HDBK-850
Military Message Military information objects supported ACP 123. These include both organizational and individual messages with the ACP 123 content type. [DISA/D2] DISA CFS
Military Messaging The functional object that allows an organization or subscriber UA to engage in military message handling. [DISA/D2] DISA CFS
military requirement An established need, justifying allocation of resources to achieve a capability to accomplish approved objectives, missions or tasks. Also called an operational requirement. See also requirement. JPUB 1-02
Military Sealift Command (MSC) The MSC provides sea transportation, combat-ready logistics forces and special mission ships for the Department of Defense in peace and war. MSC ships are separate and distinct from other Navy surface forces in three primary ways: they are non-combatant; they include both government-owned and chartered vessels; and they are crewed by civilian mariners from the U.S. Civil Service and private ship operating companies. The MSC is headquartered at the Washington Navy Yard in Washington, DC. DefenseLINK
military specification Dictates how a system must be built for DoD usage. USIS 95
military standard (MIL-STD) In accordance with the basic policy of the Department of Defense, Defense Standardization and Specification Program, military standards are issued for the comprehensive presentation of engineering practices (including test methods), procedures, processes, codes, safety requirements, symbols, abbreviations, nomenclatures, type designations and characteristics for standard equipments or items, either singly or in families. Military standards are also used to cover overall characteristics of families of end items or major components. These characteristics include, as applicable, envelope dimensions, performance ratings, primary structural features, and data required for interchangeability of components. HDBK-850
Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC) MTMC is a Major U. S. Army Command (MACOM) and is the surface transportation component of United States Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM). MTMC's top priority is logistics support to DOD's war-fighting commanders during peace and war, and in peace-keeping and humanitarian relief efforts around the world. MTMC is headquartered in Falls Church, VA. MTMC Web Site
military unique requirement A design, construction, manufacturing, or reliability requirement that is peculiar to the military, and cannot be met by a commercial product, process, or practice. [DOD 4120.3-M] DISA CFS
millemap A quantitative distribution map on which there are 1,000 dots, representing the quantity depicted; each dot therefore represents 1/1,000 of the total, and is located as accurately as possible according to the available evidence. HDBK-850
milligal A unit of acceleration equal to 1/1,000 of a gal, or 1/1,000 centimeter per second per second. This unit is used in gravity measurements, being approximately one-millionth of the average gravity at the Earth's surface. Such measurement includes the component of centrifugal acceleration in the direction of the gravitational acceleration. HDBK-850
milligauss Unit of magnetic force equal to 0.001 gauss (oersted) or 100 gammas. HDBK-850
millimeter waves Electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range of 30 to 500 gigahertz with corresponding wavelengths of 10 millimeters to 0.6 millimeter. USIS 95
mine survey A survey to determine the positions and dimensions of underground passages of a mine; also, of the natural and artificial features (surface and underground) relating to the mine. The data include both horizontal and vertical positions, lengths, directions, and slopes of tunnels; topographic and geologic characteristics of the particular vicinity; ownership of the land and of the mine. HDBK-850
mineral survey A survey made to mark the legal boundaries of mineral deposits or ore-bearing formations on the public domain, where the boundaries are to be determined by lines other than the normal subdivision of the public lands. HDBK-850
Minimally Redundant Topology (MINI-TOPO) The internal digital spatial data structure of the DMA [NIMA] Digital Production System. MINI-TOPO consists of two overlapping data structures: cartographic and spatial. The cartographic structure contains all attribute information, relationships between features and feature components, and ties to the underlying spatial structure level. The spatial structure associates the cartographic features to their exact geographic placement. Also known as the Mapping, Charting, & Geodesy Feature Data Exchange Structure (MCGFDES). HDBK-850
minimum bounding rectangle (MBR) The smallest possible rectangle, with North-South and East-West sides, which encloses an area of interest. HDBK-850
minimum elevation value The lowest vertical co-ordinate which can be found in a dataset. CEN/TC 287
minor axis The shortest diameter of an ellipse or ellipsoid. HDBK-850
minor control See photogrammetric control. HDBK-850
minor control plot See radial triangulation. HDBK-850
minor planets See asteroid. HDBK-850
minus angle See angle of depression. HDBK-850
minus declination See declination, definition 3. HDBK-850
minus sight See foresight, definition 3. HDBK-850
minute of standard length The length of 1 minute of longitude at the Equator. The length is variable, depending on the dimensions of the particular ellipsoid (spheroid) used as a reference surface. HDBK-850
mirror image See reverted image. HDBK-850
miscellaneous chart A chart other than a regular navigational chart; a special chart. HDBK-850
misclassification matrix A matrix describing classification errors. NOTE - ElemeIt (a(i,j); i:line number, j:column number) of the matrix is a number or percentage of data which belong to class i but is classified as class j. ISO/TC 211
mismatch A condition which occurs when detail is displaced and perfect matching cannot be achieved. HDBK-850
missile launch site data card A standardized form containing launcher geodetic information which has been produced on the current world geodetic system. Used in conjunction with the missile target data card. HDBK-850
missile target data Precise geodetic target positioning data required to support strategic and tactical weapon systems. See also point position data. HDBK-850
missing triangle (pendulum) A triangle which represents the failure of the two sides of a knife edge to reach a perfect intersection in a geometric line. HDBK-850
mission An objective together with the purpose of the intended action. (Extension of the DDDS 1(A)) Note: Multiple tasks accomplish a mission. (SPAWAR) C4ISR AF
mission area The general class to which an operational mission belongs. (DDDS 2305(A)) Note: within a class, the mission[s] have common objectives. C4ISR AF
Mission Area Application (MAA) Mission area applications implement specific end-user requirements or needs (e.g., payroll, accounting, materiel management, personnel, control of real-time systems, analysis of order of battle). See also Mission Area Application (MAA) category. TAFIM 3.0
Mission Area Application (MAA) category {USIGS} A normalized set of applications, and the categories collectively represent, at a high level, the functionality required to achieve the USIGS mission. The MAA categories are not applications themselves, but represent broad functional areas that in turn may comprise one or several mission applications. Mission applications are, typically, custom-built computer programs or scripts with which the user interfaces, to perform specific tasks related to a specific mission. As a rule of thumb, mission applications in USIGS are typically client-side components that invoke other components to deliver the required services. See also Mission Area Application (MAA). UTA-A
Mission Need Statement (MNS) A statement identifying the need for a new operational capability required to perform an assigned mission or to correct a deficiency in an existing capability. DODI 4630.8
Mission Specific Application (MSA) Synonym for Mission Area Application (MAA) . See also Mission Area Application (MAA) category. UTA-A
mission support automated information systems Any automated information system which is not a command, control, communications and intelligence (C3I) system. DODI 4630.8
Mission Support System An automated mission planning system to assist aircrew members in planning combat missions. This system presents three-dimensional displays of the terrain. USIS 95
Mission-Application Segment {DII COE} A segment that uses the services of the COE to provide functionality that is specific to a mission domain. Mission-application segments are external to the COE and are built on top of the COE to create a new capability. DII COE IRTS
mistake See blunder; error. HDBK-850
M-JPEG Motion JPEG is a variation of MPEG which does not use interframe coding and is thus easier to edit in a nonlinear editing system than full MPEG. Multimedia
Mobile Integrated Tactical Terminal A shelter-mounted terminal on a heavy high mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV) and trailer designed to receive, correlate, integrate, store and disseminate, in part, IMINT reports and secondary imagery. USIS 95
Mobile Intelligence Processing Element A deployable aircraft long roll imagery processing, exploitation, and distribution system. USIS 95
Mobile Subscriber Equipment The multichannel, switched communications system designed to satisfy the essential area communication needs at corps and division levels throughout the Army. It provides tactical U.S. Army forces with a secure, automated, survivable, and mobile telephone system. USIS 95
mock-up See style sheet. HDBK-850
model See airborne landing model; assault landing model; assault models; flat model; gross model; half model; master model; neat model; perspective spatial model; relief model; stereoscopic image; stereoscopic model; strategic planing model; tactical planning models; terrain model; warped model. HDBK-850
model A geometrically defined structure, with topology, attributes and behaviour, used as a symbol. ISO/TC 211
model A physical, mathematical, or otherwise logical representation of a system, entity, phenomenon, or process. [Models may be portrayed in iconic, analog, symbolic, conceptual, static or dynamic form.] M&S MP
model coordinates (photogrammetry) The space coordinates of any point imaged in a stereoscopic model which define its position with reference to the air base or to the instrument axes. HDBK-850
model datum 1. (photogrammetry) That surface in a stereoscopic model conceived as having been reconstructed as part of the model representing the sea level datum of nature. Often modified to designate the type of photography used, such as convergent model datum, and transverse model datum. 2. For relief maps or models the datum may or may not be sea level but is consistent within a relief map series. HDBK-850
model marriage The rejoining of sections of a model, after the carving operation, to the original neatline limits of a relief model. HDBK-850
model scale (photogrammetry) The relationship which exists between a distance measured in a stereoscopic model and the corresponding distance on the Earth. HDBK-850
modeling The development of the model surface by the application of modeling clay between the step edges of the step cast. A preparatory step in producing relief models. HDBK-850
modeling and simulation (M&S) The use of models, including emulators, prototypes, simulators, and stimulators, either statically or over time, to develop data as a basis for making managerial or technical decisions. The terms "modeling" and "simulation" are often used interchangeably. ("M&S Educational Training Tool (MSETT), Navy Air Weapons Center Training Systems Division Glossary," April 28, 1994) JTA 2.0
modem Abbreviation for Modulator/DEModulator. A modem converts digital signals to be transmitted in analog form, and demodulate signals produced by compatible devices. Typically used to connect a computer to a telephone line. Multimedia
Modernized Integrated Data Base (MIDB) An automated intelligence data base system accessible by numerous Department of Defense (DoD) organizations down to tactical levels. MIDB replaced the Military Intelligence Integrated Data System (MIIDS) Integrated Data Base (IDB). USIS 2-1.1
modified facsimile chart A nautical chart published by a foreign hydrographic agency and reproduced by DMA [NIMA]. Specific authority to reproduce is contained in a bilateral agreement, which will also identify any qualifications to the permission to reproduce. HDBK-850
modified Julian day An abbreviated form of the Julian day which requires fewer digits and translates the beginning of each day from Greenwich noon to Greenwich midnight; obtained by subtracting 2400000.5 from Julian days. HDBK-850
modified Lambert conformal chart A chart on the modified Lambert conformal map projection. Also ca'led Ney's chart. HDBK-850
modified Lambert conformal map projection A modification of the Lambert conformal projection for use in polar regions, one of the standard parallels being at latitude 89░59'58" and the other at latitude 71░ or 74░, and the parallels being expanded slightly to form complete concentric circles. Also called Ney's map projection. HDBK-850
modified polyconic map projection A map projection obtained from the regular polyconic projection by so altering the scale along the central meridian that the scale is exact along two standard meridians, one on either side of the central meridian and equidistant therefrom. Also called rectangular polyconic map projection. HDBK-850
Modular Architecture for the Exchange of Intelligence An automated message handling system capable of interfacing to AUTODIN (DSSCS and Genser) or DDN. USIS 95
Modular Automated Target Recognition for Interactive Exploitation (MATRIX) An advanced development activity that has focused its softcopy tools, algorithm development and integration effort to support multi-intelligence, multisource exploitation. The tool supports imagery exploitation requirements such as Indications and Warning, target monitoring, and dynamic targeting. ["NIMA shall no longer distribute MATRIX software after 4Q FY1998." - USIGS FMG] USIS 95
Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral/Stereo Scanner MOMS-02 was flown during the D2 mission aboard Space Shuttle flight STS-55. The newly designed sensor provides multispectral coverage in four wavebands including the visible and near-infrared range and is equipped with a three line along-track stereo device recording for/aft and nadir panchromatic data. USIS 95
modularity The property of a system that has been decomposed into a set of cohesive and loosely coupled modules. ITSG Vol. 1
modulation A variation of some characteristic of a radio wave, called the carrier wave, in accordance with instantaneous values of another wave called the modulating wave. These variations can be amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse. HDBK-850
modulation error In electronic distance measuring equipment, the difference in modulating frequencies obtained from crystals, between the actual frequencies of the crystals and the frequencies required for a correct distance measurement HDBK-850
Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) A parameter using spatial frequency responses to characterize a screen display. The spatial frequency is stated in lines (line pairs) or minimum/maximum intensity pairs per unit distance. The MTF is used as a performance measurement of many optical systems. [HCI Style Guide] DISA CFS
Modulation Transfer Function Compensation (MTFC) MTFC controls the sharpness of an image. USIS 95
moiré An interference pattern resulting from the overlaying or overprinting of halftones or tints whose screen angles are not sufficiently separated to make the pattern inconspicuous or to preclude a pattern accuracy. HDBK-850
mold alterations The slight modification of the landforms of the mold, often necessary in local areas in order to obtain proper register due to unequal stretch required to accommodate the landforms on a plastic relief map. HDBK-850
molded aerial photograph A vertical aerial photograph, usually annotated with military symbols, which has been formed to show terrain configuration. HDBK-850
Molitor precise leveling rod A speaking rod of T-shaped cross section, with graduation marks shaped as triangles and rectangles, the smallest division being two millimeters. Read by estimation to single millimeters. Equipped with thermometer and circular level. HDBK-850
Mollweide homalographic map projection An equal-area map projection showing the Equator and geographic parallels as straight lines, and the geographic meridians as elliptical arcs, with the exception of the central meridian, represented by a straight line, and the meridian 90░ from the center, shown as a full circle. HDBK-850
Molniya orbit A Molniya orbit is critically inclined with an 11.96725 hour period and with an apogee nadir point at 63.435 degrees latitude. Satellite has a repeating ground track and apogee stays at the Northern most latitude. USIS 95
moment A tendency to cause rotation about a point or axis, as of a control surface about its hinge or of an airplane about its center of gravity; the measure of this tendency is equal to the product of the force and the perpendicular distance between the point of axis of rotation and the line of action of the force. HDBK-850
moment of inertia The quantity obtained by multiplying the mass of each small part of a body by the square of its distance from an axis, and adding all the results. HDBK-850
momentum Quantity of motion. Linear momentum is the quantity obtained by multiplying the mass of a body by its linear speed. Angular momentum is the quantity obtained by multiplying the moment of inertia of a body by its angular speed. HDBK-850
monochromator A dispersive device for isolation of narrow portions of the spectrum. HDBK-850
monochrome A single hue or color. HDBK-850
monocomparator A precision instrument, consisting of a measuring system, a viewing system, and a readout system designed for the measurement of image coordinates on a single photograph. HDBK-850
monoscopic A single image taken on an access. USIS 95
monoscopic (mono) imaging A single image taken of the target. HDBK-850
monoscopic revision Extraction of image identifiable feature data from a single image. No effort is made to compensate for relief displacement or tilt. Existing center line data (CLD) feature and elevation data are registered with the imagery. New CLD features may be added and existing CLD features may be deleted or modified spatially or attributionally. HDBK-850
month The period of the revolution of the Moon around the Earth. The month is designated as sidereal, tropical, anomalistic, nodical or dracontic, or synodical, according to whether the revolution is relative to the stars, the vernal equinox, the perigee, the ascending node, or the Sun. See also anomalistic month; calendar month; nodical month; sidereal month; synodical month; tropical month. HDBK-850
monument 1. A structure used or erected to mark the position of a survey station; permanence is implied. See also artificial monument; natural monument. 2. A physical structure, such as an iron post, marked stone, or tree in place, which marks the location of a corner point established by a cadastral survey. Objects, to be ranked as monuments, should have certain physical properties such as visibility, durability, and stability, and they must define location without resorting to measurements. Monument and corner are not synonymous, although the two terms are often used largely in the same sense. See also corner. HDBK-850
monumented bench mark See permanent bench mark. HDBK-850
Moon position camera method A means of determining geodetic position, that is unaffected by deflection of the vertical, by photographing the Moon against a star background. HDBK-850
morphographic map A small-scale map showing physiographic features by means of standardized pictorial symbols, based on the appearance such features would have if viewed obliquely from the air. HDBK-850
mosaic 1. (JCS) (photogrammetry) An assembly of overlapping aerial photographs which have been matched to form a continuous photographic representation of a portion of t'e Earth's surface. Also called aerial mosaic. See also controlled mosaic; map-controlled mosaic; orthophotomosaic; scale-ratio mosaic; semicontrolled mosaic; strip mosaic; uncontrolled mosaic. 2. (cartography) See panel base. HDBK-850
mosaicking board A smooth-surfaced material, usually tempered Masonite, to which the mosaic is fastened with a suitable adhesive. HDBK-850
most probable value That value of a quantity which is mathematically determined from a series of observations and is more nearly free from the effects of errors than any other value that might be derived from the same series of observations. Derivation of the most probable value is made after blunders and systematic errors have been removed from the data. HDBK-850
Motifä User interface design approach based upon the "look" and "feel" presented in the OSF/Motifä style guide. Motifä is marketed by the Open Software Foundation [now The Open Group]. [HCI Style Guide] DISA CFS
Motion Picture Expert Group (MPEG) MPEG is the recognized standard for motion picture compression. It uses many of the same techniques as JPEG, but adds inter-frame compression to exploit the similarities that usually exist between successive frames. Because of this, MPEG typically compresses a video sequence by about a factor of three more than "M-JPEG" methods can for similar quality. [Note 1: M-JPEG is nothing more than the application of the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) standard to individual frames of video sequences. There is no standard for M-JPEG.][Note 2: MPEG is also name of the ISO standards body for full-motion video compression standards] OSU-CIS Web Site
Motion Picture Expert Group Standard 1 (MPEG-1) ISO standard for the compression of motion video for transmission at 1.5 Mbs for acceptable quality at a lower data transfer rate. Multimedia
Motion Picture Expert Group Standard 2 (MPEG-2) An ISO standard for the compression of motion video for transmission at 5 to 6 Mbs for broadcast quality at a higher transmission rate. Multimedia
moving average See consecutive mean. HDBK-850
moving target indicator (MTI) A device that limits the display of radar information primarily to moving targets. USIS 95
multiband photography A remote sensing system which produces more than one image of a single area in which each image shows a different wavelength band of the electromagnetic spectrum. HDBK-850
multibeam survey A hydrographic survey conducted with an array of several or many transducers mounted on the sounding vessel, designed to take simultaneous soundings on a wide swath of the ocean bottom. HDBK-850
multicolor Two or more colors. Also called polychrome. See also process color printing. HDBK-850
multi-database A collection of autonomous databases. The databases may exist on a single platform, or be distributed across multiple platforms. DII COE IRTS
multidiscipline interaction The process whereby the various intelligence disciplines share significant event data so that appropriate collection and analysis actions may be undertaken. USIS 95
multimedia The presentation of information on a computer using sound, graphics, animation, and text; using various input and output devices. JTA 2.0
Multi-media Information Network Exchange A telecommunications system that provides audio and video communication. The system will allow transmission of imagery, documents, cable television, etc. USIS 95
multimedia object A composite object consisting of various different types of related temporal and logical content intended for presentation to a user. [ISO/IEC JTC1/SGFS N 1026] TAFIM 3.0
multimedia products Integrated imagery, video, audio, cartography, textual, and other types of information for presentation or analysis. USIS 95
Multimedia Service {DoD TRM} A service of the TRM that provides the capability to manipulate and manage information products consisting of text, graphics, images, video, and audio. TAFIM 3.0
multinational data base A standardized data base operated and maintained under the control of two or more participating member nations. HDBK-850
multiple inheritance The construction of a definition by incremental modification of more than one other definition. CORBA 2.2
multiple level line Two or more single lines of spirit leveling run between the same terminal points, but along different routes. HDBK-850
multiple-camera assembly An assembly of two or more cameras mounted to maintain a fixed angle between their respective optical axes. HDBK-850
multiple-lens camera A camera with two or more lenses, with the axes of the lenses systematically arranged at fixed angles in order to cover a wide field by simultaneous exposures in all chambers. HDBK-850
multiple-lens photograph A photograph made with multiple-lens camera. HDBK-850
multiple-stage rectification A technique employing standard equipment to rectify oblique photos by applying a series of projections to effect the desired projective transformation. HDBK-850
multiplex A name applied to anaglyphic double-projection stereoplotters with the following characteristics: (1) the stereomodel is projected from diapositives reduced from aerial photograph negatives; (2) the projection system illuminates the entire diapositive format area; and (3) the stereomodel is measured and drawn by observation of a floating mark. HDBK-850
multiplex control See photogrammetric control. HDBK-850
multiplex triangulation See stereo-triangulation. HDBK-850
multipoint A communication system which allows three or more sites to both transmit and receive voice, video, and data signals. Multimedia
Multisource Tactical System (MSTS) MSTS is an Air Force initiative that will provide situation awareness capabilities that will allow enroute/remote assets to receive, process and display near-real-time intelligence overlaid onto multispectral and high-resolution imagery and NIMA products. It will provide timely intelligence updates, terrain perspective views of target areas, and provide mission rehearsal capabilities. USIS 95
multispectral Remote sensing in two or more spectral bands, such as visible and infrared See also infrared; remote sensing. HDBK-850
multispectral analysis Study of data in different spectral bands. CCRS Glossary
multispectral image data fusion A process that generates synthetic images from a combination of primary images by attempting to preserve the best characteristics of each primary image. Mascarenhas 1998
multispectral imagery Moderate spectral resolution sensors, having tens of image bands, and spectral resolution greater than 10 nanometers. USIS 95
multispectral sensing Employment of one or more sensors to obtain imagery from different portions (bands) of the electromagnetic spectrum. HDBK-850
Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) A Department of Energy (DoE) sponsored research program to demonstrate the usefulness of space-based multispectral and thermal imagery for passive detection and characterization of nuclear-proliferation activities. Beginning in 1997, MTI will operate as an on-orbit demonstration for approximately one year in a near-polar, 500 kilometer sun-synchronous orbit. MTI will have 15 spectral channels covering the visible through the long wave infrared (LWIR). A key goal of this system is estimation of nuclear reactor power by measuring cooling pond temperatures to an accuracy of 1 to 2 degrees Kelvin. USIS 95
multiuse manuscript (MUM) A manuscript compilation that, as a minimum, establishes the contours, spot elevations and includes the horizontal position of the significant planimetric features. It is suitable for use in completing a topographic map, or an aeronautical or nautical chart; and the integrity of its horizontal and vertical accuracy is retained in all end products made from it. HDBK-850
multivendor network A computer network with hardware and software from more than one vendor. TAFIM 3.0
Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) Interface standard used to connect musical instruments to computers. Multimedia
MUX (Multiplexer) Combines several different signals (e.g., video, audio, data) onto a single communication channel for transmission. Demultiplexing separates each signal at the receiving end. Multimedia

Last Updated by Mark Owens 7 January 1999.